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Table 3 Confounding variables controlled for in multivariate analysis in each study

From: The role of surgeon volume on patient outcome in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review of the literature

Study Covariates controlled
Kreder et al (2003) age, comorbidity, gender, diagnosis, hospital procedure volume
Katz et al (2004) age, gender, comorbidity, Medicaid eligibility, diagnosis, hospital procedure volume
Katz et al (2007) age, gender, race, education, diagnosis, income, comorbidity, preoperative patient reported outcome (WOMAC)
Muilwijk et al (2007) ASA class
Manley et al (2009) age, gender, race, diagnosis, hospital procedure volume, hospital teaching status, hospital ownership, hospital region, income
Manley et al (2009) age, gender, race, diagnosis, hospital procedure volume, hospital teaching status, hospital ownership, hospital region, income
Ong et al (2009) age, gender, comorbidity, race, diagnosis, Medicare eligibility, hospital teaching status, hospital ownership, hospital location, hospital size, hospital procedure volume
Yasunaga et al (2009) age, gender, BMI, diagnosis, comorbidity, hospital procedure volume
Paterson et al (2010) age, gender, comorbidity, diagnosis, hospital teaching status, hospital procedure volume
Wei et al (2010) age, gender, diagnosis, comorbidity, hospital ownership, hospital region
Styron et al (2011) age, gender, race, comorbidity, income, insurance status, geographic region, hospital region, hospital teaching status, hospital ownership, hospital size, hospital procedure volume
Baker et al (2011) age, surgeon volume, preoperative hemoglobin, gender, type of anaesthetic, ASA, surgeon experience, indication
  1. (ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, BMI Body mass index, WOMAC Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index).