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Table 2 Classification of biomarkers of muscle fatigue

From: Biomarkers of peripheral muscle fatigue during exercise

Biomarker Source
ATP metabolism biomarkers
  Lactate Serum
  Ammonia Serum
  Oxipurines Serum
Oxidative stress biomarkers
  Lipid peroxidation
     Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) Serum
     Isoprostanes (F2-isoP) Serum, urine
  Protein peroxidation
     Protein carbonyls Serum
  Antioxidative capacity
     Glutathione (GSH) Serum
     Glutathione peroxidase (GTX) Serum, leukocytes
     Catalase Serum
     Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) Serum
Inflammatory biomarkers
  Leukocytes Blood
  Interleukin-6 Serum
  TNF-α Serum