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Table 2 Comparison of ultrasonographic features and clinical characteristics in the early and late stages of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT)

From: The value of high-frequency and color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosing congenital muscular torticollis

   Ultrasound diagnosis of CMT
   Early stage (56 cases) Late stage (36 cases) P value
  Location of SCM lesion At middle and lower segments in all 56 cases At middle and lower segments in 34 cases, and at upper and lower segments in 2 cases (dumbbell-shaped) >0.05
Boundary of SCM lesion Clear in 52 cases and not clear in 4 cases Diffuse without marked boundaries in 20 cases, clear in 16 cases <0.05
Ultrasound features Change in SCM thickness Thickening in all 56 cases Thickening in 16 cases, thinning in 20 cases <0.05
  Echo signals from the affected SCM Weak in 40 cases, uneven in 16 cases Diffuse increase in 16 cases, cord-like hyperechoic signals in 16 cases, decrease in 4 cases <0.05
  Blood supply in color Doppler Spotty and cord-like blood flow signals in 36 cases, no marked blood flow signals in 20 cases No marked blood flow signals in all 36 cases <0.05
  Neck mass Significant in 52 cases, not apparent in 4 cases Neck masses in 8 cases, no neck masses in 28 cases <0.05
Clinical characteristics Neck activity Mild limitation in lateral bending to the affected side in 26 cases, marked rotational limitation in 8 cases, no marked limitation in 22 cases Rotational limitation in 34 cases, mild limitation in lateral bending to the affected side in 2 cases <0.05
  Treatment Rehabilitation in 48 cases, surgery in 8 cases Surgery in 34 cases, rehabilitation in 2 cases <0.05
  Pathology Stromal proliferation and fibrosis in SCM in 8 cases Stromal proliferation and fibrosis in SCM in 34 cases <0.05