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Table 3 Comparison between HV and control groups for functional performance and muscle strength (mean ± SD)

From: Foot pain and functional limitation in healthy adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study

  HV group (n = 30) Control group (n = 30) Mean difference (95% CI)
Walking tests (sec)
Timed 10m walk 4.95±0.69 4.99±0.59 −0.04 (−0.37 to 0.29)
Stair ascent 3.88±0.41 3.77±0.41 0.11 (−0.11 to 0.32)
Stair descent 3.58±0.45 3.46±0.44 0.12 (−0.11 to 0.35)
Postural sway (COP range, cm)
AP sway, both feet eyes open 1.91±0.82 1.90±0.62 0.0 (−0.37 to 0.38)
ML sway, both feet eyes open 1.50±0.65 1.35±0.40 0.15 (−0.13 to 0.43)
AP sway, both feet eyes closed 2.13±1.4 2.08±0.97 0.05 (−0.58 to 0.68)
ML sway, both feet eyes closed 1.78±0.68 1.44±0.46 0.34 (0.04 to 0.63)*
AP sway, foam eyes open 3.06±1.2 2.78±0.82 0.28 (−0.26 to 0.82)
ML sway, foam eyes open 3.63±1.1 3.43±0.91 0.20 (−0.33 to 0.73)
AP sway, foam eyes closed 5.94±3.3 4.87±1.4 1.1 (−0.24 to 2.4)
ML sway, foam eyes closed 7.80±2.9 6.61±1.8 1.2 (−0.06 to 2.4)
AP sway, single leg stance† 3.44±1.2 2.97±0.85 0.47 (−0.07 to 1.0)
ML sway, single leg stance† 5.54±2.8 4.56±1.4 0.98 (−0.16 to 2.1)
Muscle strength (N)
Plantarflexion strength 66.9±29.0 104.0±40.7 −37.1 (−55.4 to −18.8)**
Abduction strength 9.9±7.7 19.7±13.9 −9.8 (−15.6 to −4.0)**
  1. Abbreviations: HV = hallux valgus; CI = confidence interval; COP = centre of pressure; AP = anteroposterior; ML = mediolateral.
  2. * P < 0.05.
  3. ** P < 0.001.
  4. † Two excluded trials (< 30 sec) in HV group; therefore analysis was based on n = 58.