Skip to main content

Table 2 Comparison between HV and control groups for self-reported foot pain, disability and concern about appearance (mean ± SD for all tests except FPDI presented as median (min – max))

From: Foot pain and functional limitation in healthy adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study

  HV group (n = 30) Control group (n = 30) Mean difference (95% CI)
FHSQ (score range 0 – 100)
Foot pain scale 76.8±18.5 94.9±6.2 −18.1 (−25.3 to −11.0)**
Foot function scale 86.9±17.7 99.4±2.5 −12.5 (−19.0 to −5.9)**
Footwear scale 28.1±23.1 75.5±25.4 −47.5 (−60.0 to −34.9)**
General foot health 49.1±29.0 86.6±13.9 −37.5 (−49.3 to −25.7)**
VAS (0 – 100 mm)
Worst pain VAS 37.6±25.5 12.2±16.9 25.5 (14.3 to 36.6)**
Average pain VAS 15.4±15.1 3.2±6.9 12.3 (6.2 to 18.3)**
Appearance VAS 58.4±31.4 20.4±23.2 38.1 (23.8 to 52.3)**
Pressure-pain threshold (kPa)
Medial first MTPJ 561.6±224.1 694.9±233.3 −133.3 (−251.5 to −15.1)*
Plantar first MTPJ 448.7±196.8 539.5±231.5 −90.8 (−201.8 to 20.3)
Footwear examination (mm)
Relative heel height 15.2±11.8 16.2±12.3 −0.96 (−7.3 to 5.4)
Relative ball width† 4.6±4.6 4.8±5.2 −0.22 (−3.1 to 2.6)
FPDI    Wilcoxon rank-sum Z
Function (score range 0 – 20) 2 (0 – 14) 0 (0 – 5) −4.88**
Pain (score range 0 – 10) 3 (0 – 8) 0 (0 – 2) −5.81**
Total (score range 0 – 34) 5.5 (0 – 24) 0 (0 – 9) −6.18**
  1. Abbreviations: HV = hallux valgus; CI = confidence interval; FHSQ = Foot Health Status Questionnaire; VAS = Visual analogue scale; MTPJ = metatarsophalangeal joint; FPDI = Foot Pain and Disability Index.
  2. * P < 0.05.
  3. ** P < 0.001.
  4. † Twelve subjects were excluded from this analysis; therefore analysis was based on n = 48 (23 HV, 25 control).