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Table 2 Mean and SD of primary and secondary outcome measures for continuous ultrasound and placebo ultrasound groups at baseline, after 10 treatment sessions, and after 1 month follow up

From: The effect of continuous ultrasound on chronic non-specific low back pain: a single blind placebo-controlled randomized trial

Parameter Continuous US* Placebo US P value***
Before treatment After 10 sessions After 1 month Before treatment After 10 sessions After 1 month
N=24 N=24 N=21 N=24 N=24 N=18
FRI** 40.8 (14.6) 23.4 (6.9) 22.8 (7.8) 43.9 (16.9) 31.1 (13.4) 30.5 (11.9) .49
VAS** 46.6 (17.7) 26.6 (13.8) 27.7 (14.4) 49 (16) 30.7 (13.1) 25.5 (9.9) .62
Flexion ROM (millimeters) 48.8 (19.4) 52.4 (18.6) 52.4 (19.60) 57.4 (18.9) 59.8 (17.9) 57.5 (18.3) .13
Extension ROM (millimeters) 19.4 (8.2) 20.12 (8.5) 21.7 (8.5) 23.6 (9.6) 24.1 (9.3) 24.7 (9.6) .11
Endurance time(in seconds) 111.5 (33.5) 128.9 (30.2) 128.3 (26.2) 134.2 (27.1) 140.3 (43.5) 139.3 (45.8) .01
Median frequency slope of right muscles
Illiocostalis lumborum -.24 (.17) -.21 (.09) -.19 (.07) -.21 (.13) -.20 (.06) -.19 (.06) .56
Multifidus -.26 (.15) -.26 (.16) -.24 (.13) -.30 (.17) -.25 (.05) -.24 (.05) .82
Gluteus maximus -.11 (.13) -.09 (.10) -.09 (.10) -.13 (.13) -.09 (.09) -.09 (.1) .65
Biceps femoris -.12 (.09) -.12 (.08) -.09 (.06) -.11 (.07) -.12 (.07) -.09 (.05) .83
Median frequency slope of left muscles
Illiocostalis lumborum -.18 (.11) -.18 (.11) -.16 (.09) -.21 (.12) -.19 (.07) -.18 (.08) .29
Multifidus -.24 (.14) -.25 (.15) -.25 (.15) -.29 (.21) -.24 (.10) -.25 (.11) .31
Gluteus Maximus -.06 (.04) -.06 (.06) -.08 (.05) -.09 (.07) -.08 (.05) -.09 (.08) .11
  1. *US: Ultrasound.
  2. **FRI: Functional Rating Index, VAS: Visual Analog Scale.
  3. ***p values are for baseline differences between the two groups at significance level ≤ .05.