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Table 3 Patient knowledge of foods and alcoholic beverages and their risk of causing a gout flare

From: Patients’ knowledge and beliefs concerning gout and its treatment: a population based study

  % agreement that item could cause a gout flare  
Food Total population Active gout Not active gout P value
Published evidence of an association between gout episode and level of consumption* (% agreement that item could cause a gout flare)  
Shellfish 55 21 22 0.855
Beer 43 28 45 0.026
Hard liquor (whiskey, gin and vodka) 34 28 34 0.419
Seafood excluding shellfish 23 53 52 0.957
Beef 22 11 24 0.046
Pork 7 4 8 0.288
No associations seen (% agreement that item could cause a gout flare)  
Vegetables 58 47 59 0.131
Chicken 55 42 57 0.051
Legumes (beans and lentils) 39 32 39 0.356
Wine 13 4 15 0.030
Overall score ( mean ± SD) 3.4 (2.3) 2.7 (2.2) 3.6 (2.2) 0.014
  1. *Epidemiologic studies have identified a relationship between the dietary intake and gout flares.