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Table 1 Initial physical characteristics of participants

From: Effects of ground and joint reaction force exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

  Exercise Control
Variable Groups (#) x ¯ ±SD Mdn Range Groups (#) x ¯ ±SD Mdn Range
Age (yrs) 33 62.9 ± 7.3 60 54 - 80 27 62.2 ± 6.7 60 53 – 80
Height (cm) 22 161.5 ± 3.3 162 152 - 165 19 161.4 ± 3.2 162 152 – 165
Postmenopausal (yrs) 26 13.8 ± 8 11 3 - 30 21 12.9 ± 7.1 10 4 – 30
Body weight (kg) 28 66.4 ± 6.6 68 46 – 78 23 67.2 ± 7.9 68 46 – 84
Body mass index (kg/m2) 21 25.6 ± 2.2 26 20 - 29 18 25.6 ± 2.6 26 20 – 31
Lean body mass (kg) 18 39.2 ± 2.2 39 35 - 43 13 39.1 ± 1.9 39 35 – 42
Fat mass (kg) 6 22.1 ± 5.3 21 17 - 32 4 24.0 ± 8.5 23 15 – 35
Body fat (%) 15 39.3 ± 3.2 39 31 – 44 12 39.1 ± 3.5 39 31 – 46
Calcium intake (mg) 12 846 ± 179 832 609 – 1214 10 868 ± 213 829 626 - 1190
Vitamin D (mcg) 5 5.6 ± 5.1 2 2 - 12 4 5.3 ± 3.9 5 2 – 9
BMD (g/cm2)
- Femoral neck 27 0.749 ± 0.094 0.720 0.580 – 0.925 24 0.766 ± 0.095 0.770 0.590 – 0.927
- Lumbar spine 28 0.957 ± 0.158 0.966 0.595 – 1.180 24 1.00 ± 0.100 1.00 0.600 – 1.200
- Ward’s triangle 8 0.591 ± 0.089 0.575 0.441 – 0.730 6 0.605 ± 0.097 0.598 0.474 – 0.760
- Total hip 13 0.802 ± 0.093 0.840 0.670 – 0.940 11 0.843 ± 0.092 0.869 0.690 – 1.00
- Trochanteric 20 0.659 ± 0.085 0.650 0.510 – 0.806 16 0.682 ± 0.085 0.685 0.520 – 0.840
- Intertrochanteric 11 0.959 ± 0.076 0.986 0.820 – 1.035 7 0.979 ± 0.068 0.990 0.850 – 1.00
- Whole body 8 1.033 ± 0.073 0.99 0.970 – 1.130 7 1.043 ± 0.070 1.002 0.980 – 1.130
- Radius - 1/3 4 0.600 ± 0.028 0.610 0.560 – 0.620 3 0.603 ± 0.012 0.610 0.590 – 0.610
- Radius – mid 4 0.523 ± 0.015 0.530 0.500 – 0.530 3 0.520 ± 0.017 0.530 0.500 – 0.530
- Radius – ultradistal 4 0.363 ± 0.005 0.360 0.360 – 0.370 3 0.363 ± 0.006 0.360 0.360 – 0.370
  1. Notes: Groups (#), number of groups in which data were available; x ¯ ±SD, mean ± standard deviation; Mdn, Median; BMD, bone mineral density; Baseline data for aerobic fitness, balance and muscular strength not reported because of the different metrics used in the studies.