Skip to main content

Table 3 Results of the mixed-effects ANOVAs for the qualitative moderator variables on the effect sizes obtained from measures of behaviours in the posttest

From: Preventive physiotherapy interventions for back care in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis

Cluster / Moderator variable k d + 95% C. I. ANOVA results
    d l d u  
(A) Treatment characteristics:      
Type of treatment:      Q B(2) = 1.29, p = .525
Postural hygiene (PH) 11 0.853 0.256 1.451 R 2 = 0.0
PH + Physiotherapy exercise (PE) 1 1.858 −0.114 3.831 Q W(10) = 247.72, p < .001
PH + Physical activity 1 0.316 −1.594 2.227  
Type of postural hygiene:      Q B(2) = 6.16, p = .046
Acquisition of knowledge (AK) 4 −0.126 −1.135 0.884 R 2 = 0.0
AK + Posture training habits (PTH) 7 1.466 0.715 2.217 Q W(10) = 250.24, p < .001
AK + PTH + Stimulat. dynamic postures 2 0.820 −0.541 2.181  
Teaching method of postural hygiene:      Q B(1) = 6.63, p = .010
Theoretical teaching (TT) 5 0.051 −0.751 0.853 R 2 = 0.033
TT + Practical teaching 8 1.378 0.764 1.992 Q W(11) = 259.97, p < .001
External agents:      Q B(1) = 0.85, p = .393
Yes 7 1.095 0.438 1.752 R 2 = 0.037
No 6 0.636 −0.088 1.360 Q W(11) = 235.80, p < .001
Parents as paraprofessionals:      Q B(1) = 0.16, p = .688
Parental involvement 2 0.642 −0.660 1.944 R 2 = 0.0
No parental involvement 11 0.931 0.383 1.478 Q W(11) = 283.70, p < .001
Teachers as paraprofessionals:      Q B(1) = 0.76, p = .383
Teacher involvement 4 1.258 0.252 2.265 R 2 = 0.0
No teacher involvement 9 0.719 0.043 1.395 Q W(11) = 283.97, p < .001
Mode of application:      Q B(2) = 1.04, p = .594
Indirect intervention 1 0.741 −1.354 2.837 R 2 = 0.0
Direct intervention 9 0.718 0.025 1.412 Q W(10) = 283.94, p < .001
Mixed intervention 3 1.427 0.239 2.616  
(B) Methodological characteristics:      
Use of pretest measures:      Q B(1) = 0.15, p = .702
Yes 12 0.915 0.392 1.439 R 2 = 0.0
No 1 0.542 −1.293 2.377 Q W(11) = 283.51, p < .001
Type of control group:      Q B(1) = 0.16, p = .688
Active control 2 0.642 −0.660 1.944 R 2 = 0.0
Nonactive control 11 0.931 0.383 1.478 Q W(11) = 283.70, p < .001
Evaluator blinding:      Q B(1) = 7.10, p = .008
Blinded evaluator 9 1.310 0.737 1.882 R 2 = 0.062
Not blinded evaluator (or not reported) 4 −0.125 −1.011 0.762 Q W(11) = 254.47, p < .001
  1. k: number of studies. d +: mean effect size. d l and d u: lower and upper confidence limits of the 95% confidence interval around the mean effect size. Q B: statistic for testing the significance of the moderator variable. Q W: statistic for testing the model misspecification. R 2: proportion of variance accounted for by the moderator variable. The statistical analyses here presented were carried out excluding the Méndez and Gómez’s (2001) d index of 13.033[20].