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Table 1 Variables and methods used to assess clinical manifestations of chronic non-specific musculoskeletal pain

From: Subgroups of musculoskeletal pain patients and their psychobiological patterns – The LOGIN study protocol

Questionnaires Variables
Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire (CPG)* [65, 66] Severity of chronic pain problems (disability, pain intensity)
Pain Experience Scale (SES) [64] Sensory and affective descriptors of pain
12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12)* [74, 75] Health-related quality of life
Resilience Scale (RS11)* [97, 98] Resilience (personal competence, acceptance of self and life)
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D)* [99, 100] Anxiety and depression
Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)* [72, 73, 101] Childhood and adolescence maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical and emotional neglect)
Pain drawing (pain location) [62][63][6] Perceived location(s) of pain will be assessed using digitised pain drawings. Classification into categories of chronic local and chronic widespread pain.
Sociodemographics (self-report questions) Age, sex, marital status, education, employment status
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders + Axis II (SCID I + II)* [69] DSM-IV Axis-I and Axis-II mental disorders
Physical examination  
ACR Criteria for Fibromyalgia (ACR Classification) [62][102] Tenderpoint count and documentation of specific symptoms
Physical Impairment Scale (PIS) [67] Physical impairment (total flexion, total extension, average lateral flexion, straight leg raising, spinal tenderness, bilateral active straight leg raising, and sit-up)
Back Performance Scale (BPS) [68] Disability. Tests of daily activities (Sock Test, Pick-up Test, Roll-up Test, Fingertip-to-Floor Test, and Lift Test)
  1. * German Version.