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Table 3 Statistical procedures of the reliability and validity studies

From: The quality of evidence of psychometric properties of three-dimensional spinal posture-measuring instruments

Author Statistical analysis
Stokes et al (1988) • linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient ®
Pearcy et al (1989) • means; estimate of error, regression analysis and ICC
Smidt et al (1992) • Dunnett's comparison test
Norton et al (1993) • Pearson product moment correlation coefficient ® and repeated measures t test
Drerup et al (1996) and Hackenberg et al (2003a and b) • Root mean square (RMS) deviations of the surface curves from the radiographic curves
Whittle et al (1997) • ICC and Pearson correlation coefficient
Normand et al (2002) • means, SD, SEM, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) and mean differences
Pazos et al (2005) • multiway ANOVA
Warren et al 2005 • Pearson correlation coefficient and ICC
Harrison et al (2007) and Janik et al (2007) • error analyses of mean differences and SD
Geldhof et al (2007) • ICC for test-retest reliability
Pazos et al (2007) • bivariate ANOVA; typical error of measurement (TEM); 95% CI of the TEM; smallest detectable difference (SDD) and multivariate ANOVA
Normand et al (2007) • mean absolute values of differences within examiner and between examiner measurements; ANOVA; Shapiro-Wilk test and SEM for conservative and liberal ICC methods