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Table 2 The type and time interval for reliability studies and the type and reference standard for validity studies

From: The quality of evidence of psychometric properties of three-dimensional spinal posture-measuring instruments

Author Type of reliability Time interval Type of validity Reference standard
Stokes et al (1988) N/A N/A Criterion-related validity Stereoradiography
Pearcy et al (1989) N/A N/A Concurrent validity Precision optical inclinometer
Smidt et al (1992) N/A N/A Concurrent validity Not specified
  Intra- and interrater reliabIlity On the same day N/A N/A
Norton et al (1993) N/A N/A Concurrent validity Type measure or ruler
Drerup et al (1996) N/A N/A Criterion-related validity Stereoradiography
Normand et al (2002) N/A N/A Concurrent validity Not specified
Hackenberg et al (2003a) N/A N/A Criterion-related validity Stereoradiography
Hackenberg et al (2003b)     
Pazos et al (2005) N/A N/A Concurrent validity Coordinate measuring machine
Harrison et al (2007) and Janik et al (2007) N/A N/A Concurrent validity Not specified
Whittle et al (1997) Intrarater reliability On the same day N/A N/A
Warren et al 2005 Intrarater reliability One minute N/A N/A
Geldhof et al (2007) Intrarater reliability One week N/A N/A
Pazos et al (2007) Test retest reliability 30 seconds N/A N/A
Normand et al (2007) Intra- and interrater reliability One day N/A N/A
  1. N/A: Not Applicable