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Table 1 Recent three-dimensional instruments used to measure static spinal posture

From: The quality of evidence of psychometric properties of three-dimensional spinal posture-measuring instruments

Instrument Addresses Aim 1: Used to measure posture Addresses Aim 2: Reports on psychometric properties N
BACES D'Osualdo et al. 2002[41]   
AUSCAN Negrini et al. 2007[42]   
Electromagnetic tracking system Claus et al. 2009[43]   
Elite optoelectronic system Lissoni et al. 2001[44]; Naslund et al. 2005[45]   
Inspek   Pazos et al. 2005* [35]; Pazos et al. 2007 [27] 2
Lumber Motion Monitor (LMM) Jang et al. 2007[46]   
FONAR Upright positional MRI Morl et al. 2006 [47]; Cargill et al. 2007 [48]; Lafon et al. 2010 [49]   
Metrecom Franklin et al. 1995* [50]; Black et al. 1996 [51]; Gram et al. 1999 [52] Smidt et al. 1992* [22]; Norton et al. 1993* [38] 2
Microscribe 3DX Digitizer   Warren et al. 2005 [28] 1
Optoelectronic camera system Duong et al. 2009[53]   
Optotrak 3020 Rempel et al. 2007 [54]   
Peak Motus Straker et al. 2009[55]   
Postureprint   Normand et al. 2002 [37]; Harrison et al. 2007 [33]; Janik et al. 2007 [34]; Normand et al. 2007 [26] 4
Qualysis Proreflex Motion Capture Unit system Grip et al. 2007[56]; Neiva et al. 2009[57]   
Rasterstereography   Stokes et al. 1988* [32]; Hackenberg et al 2003a [30]; Hackenberg 2003b [31]; Drerup et al. 1994* [23] and 1996* [24] 5
3 Space Isotrack/Fastrak O' Sullivan et al. 2006* [58]; Caneiro et al. 2010 [59]; Astfalck et al. 2010 [60] Pearcy et al. 1989* [36] 1
Vicon three-dimensional kinematic system Levine et al. 1996 [61}; Szeto et al. 2005[9]; Skalli et al. 2006[62] Whittle et al. 1997[29] 1
Zebris CMS70P; Zebris CMS20 Theisen et al. 2010[63] Geldhof et al. 2007[25] 1
  1. N: number of papers addressing aim 2; Bold script: Papers from search A; Italic script: Papers from search B;*: Papers from secondary search; Normal script: Papers from author search