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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios (OR) of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) according to cardiovascular risk factors.

From: Associations of cardiovascular risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness and manifest atherosclerotic vascular disease with carpal tunnel syndrome

Characteristic Sample Possible and probable CTS combined Probable CTS Operated CTS
   Cases OR 95% CI Cases OR 95% CI Cases OR 95% CI
Smoking status           
   Never smoker 2062 84 1   20 1   29 1  
   Former smoker 1649 51 1.2 0.8-1.6 11 1.0 0.4-2.3 15 1.0 0.5-1.8
   Occasional smoker 333 9 1.2 0.5-2.6 3 2.0 0.6-6.8 5 2.4 0.9-6.3
   Current smoker           
<10 pack-years 501 26 2.0 1.2-3.5 3 1.1 0.3-3.9 6 1.4 0.5-3.7
10-20 pack-years 400 26 2.6 1.5-4.4 12 5.7 2.3-14.1 6 1.8 0.6-4.7
>20 pack-years 429 19 1.7 0.9-3.1 7 2.7 0.9-8.0 6 1.5 0.6-3.7
Exercise (times/week)           
   ≤1 2496 96 1   21 1   29 1  
   2-3 1973 68 1.0 0.7-1.5 15 1.0 0.5-1.8 25 1.1 0.6-1.9
   ≥ 4 1621 69 1.2 0.8-1.6 23 1.6 0.9-3.0 24 1.2 0.6-2.0
Alcohol consumption           
   None 1237 67 1   19 1   22 1  
   Light 972 31 1.0 0.6-1.6 5 0.6 0.2-1.7 9 0.9 0.3-2.2
   Moderate 978 25 0.9 0.5-1.5 8 1.1 0.4-2.8 7 0.8 0.3-2.0
   Excessive 987 30 1.5 0.8-2.7 6 1.1 0.4-2.9 8 1.3 0.5-3.3
Body mass index           
   Normal 2514 82 1   18 1   17 1  
   Underweight 61 0    0    1 1.9 0.2-15.1
   Overweight 2288 82 1.1 0.7-1.5 20 1.1 0.5-2.0 33 2.0 1.1-3.7
   Obese 1002 58 1.3 0.8-1.9 19 1.6 0.8-3.0 24 2.8 1.3-5.8
Waist circumference           
   Normal 2019 59 1   15 1   6 1  
   Increased 1684 44 0.8 0.4-1.2 9 0.6 0.2-1.8 20 3.7 1.5-9.0
   Obese 2509 137 1.1 0.7-1.6 36 1.1 0.5-2.1 52 4.8 1.9-12.1
Waist-to-hip ratio           
   Normal 922 24 1   5 1   9 1  
   Increased 3554 135 1.3 0.8-2.1 29 1.3 0.5-3.2 38 0.9 0.4-2.2
   Obese 1735 81 1.3 0.7-2.2 26 1.6 0.6-4.4 31 1.4 0.5-3.2
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)           
   ≤129 2072 69 1   23 1   22 1  
   130-189 3132 125 1.2 0.8-1.7 26 0.7 0.4-1.2 38 1.1 0.6-1.9
   ≥190 1032 49 1.4 0.9-2.2 13 1.0 0.5-1.9 19 1.5 0.8-2.9
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)           
   ≥60 1689 77 1   21 1   22 1  
   40-60 3207 119 0.8 0.6-1.2 24 0.7 0.3-1.2 36 0.9 0.5-1.7
   ≤40 1340 47 0.8 0.5-1.2 17 1.1 0.5-2.2 21 1.5 0.7-2.8
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)           
   >200 1543 45 1   15 1   12 1  
   200-239 2206 91 1.4 0.9-2.3 18 0.8 0.4-1.8 27 1.5 0.7-3.0
   ≤240 2487 107 1.4 0.9-2.3 29 1.1 0.5-2.2 40 1.8 0.9-3.6
Triglycerides (mg/dL)           
   ≤150 4186 163 1   39 1   46 1  
   151-199 1069 42 0.8 0.6-1.1 13 1.0 0.5-1.8 16 1.1 0.5-2.3
   ≥ 200 981 38 1.0 0.6-1.5 10 1.0 0.4-2.3 17 1.7 0.9-3.1
High-sensitive C-reactive protein           
   Low (≤3 mg/L) 5117 195 1   46 1   54 1  
   High (>3 mg/L) 1062 47 0.9 0.6-1.3 16 1.2 0.6-2.3 25 1.7 1.1-2.8
Insulin resistance (tertile)           
   1st 2077 68 1   18 1   18 1  
   2nd 2072 83 1.0 0.7-1.4 17 0.8 0.4-1.5 24 1.2 0.7-2.2
   3rd 2083 92 1.1 0.8-1.6 27 1.1 0.6-1.9 37 1.7 0.9-3.3
Metabolic syndrome           
   No 4313 145 1   32 1   41 1  
   Yes 1902 96 1.1 0.8-1.5 30 1.6 0.98-2.6 36 1.5 0.9-2.5
Diabetes           
   No 5880 222 1   55 1   71 1  
   Type 1 34 2 1.9 0.4-8.5 1 3.5 0.4-29.0 1 - -
   Type 2 319 19 1.0 0.5-1.8 6 1.2 0.4-3.5 7 1.1 0.5-2.6
Hypertension           
   No 5017 174 1   43 1   52   
   Yes 1237 69 1.2 0.8-1.6 19 1.2 0.6-2.1 27 1.6 0.9-2.7
  1. A separate model was run for each characteristic and the odds ratios obtained were adjusted for age, sex, education, somatization, handgrip with high forces and work using vibrating tools