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Table 1 Overview of validity and inter-rater reliability for knee goniometry

From: Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study

Study Validity Inter-rater Goniometric tool and test position
Lavernia et al [23] Mean difference between radiologic and goniometric measurement up to 13 degrees with wide (up to 20 degrees) 95% limits of agreement 1-way ANOVA method determined a significant difference between raters for visual and measured range of motion Standard goniometer; supine.
Lenssen et al [24]   Mean difference (95% limits of agreement) between raters differed by position tested and angle:
1.4 degrees (-16.2 to 19 degrees) (flexion/supine);
2.7 (-6.7 to 12.1) (flexion, sitting);
2.2 (-6.2 to 10.6) (extension, sitting)
Long-arm goniometer; sitting and supine.
Edwards et al [16] 22% of the goniometric measurements were different by 5 degrees or more Correlation coefficient, 0.91 (type not specified). Standard goniometer; supine.
Brosseau et al [14] r = 0.975-0.987 (flexion),
r = 0.390-0.514 (extension).
ICC, 0.959-0.982 (flexion);
ICC 0.856-0.926 (extension). Both devices performed similarly.
Parallelogram and Universal goniometer; supine.
Brosseau et al [15] r = 0.73-0.78 (flexion),
r = 0.33-0.48 (extension).
ICC, 0.82-0.88 (flexion); ICC 0.43-0.52 (extension). Both devices performed similarly, but the parallelogram provided more advantages to the clinician. Parallelogram and Universal goniometer; supine.
Watkins et al [19]   ICC 0.90 (flexion); ICC, 0.86 (extension) Standard goniometer; positioned varied.
Gogia et al [22] ICC 0.98-0.99. ICC 0.99 Standard goniometry; side-lying.
Rothstein et al [18]   ICC 0.84-0.93 (flexion); ICC 0.59-0.80 (extension). All devices performed similarly. 3 different standard goniometers; position not specified.
Lawrence, cited by Johnson [17] r = 0.94 (extension and flexion angles combined). Intra-observer error +/- 2.3 degrees for end flexion (aggregate standard deviation).
Inter-observer error +/- 2.6 degrees end extension and +/-4.2 degrees end flexion
Extended goniometer; supine position.
Cleffken et al [20]   Passive end of range flexion - Smallest detectable difference 0 ± 6.4 degrees Electronic digital inclinometer; supine
  1. Pearson product moment correlation (r), intra-class correlation (ICC).