Three serum cytokines and chemokines, IL-1α (A), IL-6 (B) and IFN-γ (C) increased in trained-only (TR) and high repetition low force task (HRLF) aged rats compared to Trained and HRLF young rats, respectively. B) IL-6 also increased in aged HRLF rats compared to aged normal controls (NC). Mean + SEM shown. FRC = Food restricted controls that were neither trained nor performed the task. *p < 0.05, and ***p < 0.001 compared to same group of young rats; ap < 0.05 compared to aged NC rats.