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Table 3 Differential diagnostics in ITW

From: Idiopathic toe-walking in children, adolescents and young adults: a matter of local or generalised stiffness?

Differential diagnostics where ITW is present as symptom or marker[2, 5, 18, 2629]
Based on central nervous system disorders
Cerebral palsy
Lesion of the tractus corticospinalis
Hyperkinesia disorders
Transient dystonia (unilateral ITW)
Based on peripheral neurological disorders (spinal aberrations)
Congenital/acquired spinal cord lesion
Spinal tumour
Sensory processing disorders
Based on peripheral neuromuscular disorders
Peroneal muscular atrophy
Muscular dystrophy
Based on musculoskeletal disorders
(Congenital) contracture of the achilles tendon or calf muscles
Osseal disorders as congenital club foot
Leg length discrepancies (unilateral ITW)
Based on developmental and pervasive disorders
Autism/Autism Spectrum Disorder
Pervasive developmental disorder
Language, learning and developmental disorders