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Table 2 Multivariate analysis between ITW and restricted range of joint motion in the ankle joint versus controls, adjusted for confounders.

From: Idiopathic toe-walking in children, adolescents and young adults: a matter of local or generalised stiffness?

  ITW and restricted range of joint motion in the ankle joint (n = 31) Controls
(n = 317)
Mean difference
(95% CI)
Adjusted mean difference
(95% CI)
  Mean (sd) Mean (sd)   
Total range of joint motion (degrees) 1403.4 (62.9) 1428.7 (57.9) 25.35 (3.7, 47.0) 21.9 (2.1, 41.7)
Total muscle strength (N.) 1326.1 (313.2) 1140 (372.8) -185.5 (-323.4,-47.5) -19.5 (-86.7, 47.6)
Quantitative bone ultrasound BUA (dB/MHz) 68.9 (13.5) 65.5 (16.6) -3.4 (-9.5, 2.6)  
Quantitative bone ultrasound SOS (m/s) 1556.5 (25.2) 1567.7 (29.0) 11.1 (0.5, 21.8) 7.9 (-18.4, 2.6)
  1. Values are means (sd); BUA: broadband ultrasound attenuation, SOS: speed of sound. Total range of joint motion was a summation of all measurements without the ankle joint. Statistically significant associations are given in bold face.
  2. Adjustments were made for age, gender, body weight and height