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Table 1 Univariate analysis between ITW and restricted range of joint motion in the ankle joint versus controls.

From: Idiopathic toe-walking in children, adolescents and young adults: a matter of local or generalised stiffness?

  ITW and restricted range of joint motion in the ankle joint (n = 31) Controls
(n = 317)
Mean difference
(95% CI)
  Mean (sd) Mean (sd)  
Age (years) 15.2 (2.0) 14.0 (4.0) -1.2 (-2.6, 0.3)
Body height (cm) 170.9 (10.5) 160.6 (18.6) -10.2 (-16.9, -3.6)
Body weight (kg) 59.3 (10.7) 51.6 (17.2) -7.8 (-13.9, -1.6)
Hours sport activities/week 3.1 (0.7) 2.9 (2.1) -0.2 (-1.0, 0.5)
Total range of joint motion (degrees) 1403.4 (62.9) 1428.7 (57.9) 25.35 (3.7, 47.0)
Range of joint motion ankle joint dorsal extension (mean, sd; range) - 0.4 (1.3; 0 - -5) 9.2 (5.2;0.1-22.5) -9.2 (-11.1, -7.2)
Total muscle strength (N.) 1326.1 (313.2) 1140 (372.8) -185.5 (-323.4,-47.5)
Quantitative bone ultrasound BUA (dB/MHz) 68.9 (13.5) 65.5 (16.6) -3.4 (-9.5, 2.6)
Quantitative bone ultrasound SOS (m/s) 1556.5 (25.2) 1567.7 (29.0) 11.1 (0.5, 21.8)
  1. Values are means (sd); BUA: broadband ultrasound attenuation, SOS: speed of sound. Total range of joint motion was a summation of all measurements without the ankle joint. Statistically significant associations are given in bold face.