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Table 5 Work-to-life conflict as the principal risk factor for strong (low) back pain and neck/shoulder pain, stratified by sex and additionally adjusted for general stress

From: Work-life conflict and musculoskeletal disorders: a cross-sectional study of an unexplored association

  Suffer a lot from backache or lower back pain Suffer a lot from neck or shoulder pain
  Men Women Men Women
  OR 95%-CI OR 95%-CI OR 95%-CI OR 95%-CI
Total effect model n = 3200 n = 2297 n = 3196 n = 2313
Work-to-life conflict     
   Very low (0-3) 1   1   1   1  
   Low (4-7) 1.77 1.10-2.86 1.46 0.89-2.40 1.24 0.78-1.97 1.61 1.07-2.43
   Moderate (8-11) 1.93 1.16-3.21 1.77 1.06-2.94 1.99 1.24-3.22 2.49 1.64-3.77
   High (12-15) 2.47 1.40-4.36 2.94 1.70-5.11 2.96 1.74-5.06 3.91 2.47-6.19
   Very high (16-20) 3.77 1.78-7.97 4.12 2.01-8.44 4.82 2.39-9.70 6.30 3.41-11.66
Direct effect model n = 3197 n = 2296 n = 3193 n = 2311
Work-to-life conflict     
   Very low (0-3) 1   1   1   1  
   Low (4-7) 1.65 1.01-2.67 1.21 0.73-2.00 1.11 0.69-1.78 1.45 0.96-2.19
   Moderate (8-11) 1.62 0.97-2.72 1.29 0.77-2.17 1.64 1.00-2.67 2.06 1.35-3.14
   High (12-15) 1.75 0.97-3.16 1.73 0.97-3.07 2.19 1.32-3.81 2.83 1.76-4.56
   Very high (16-20) 2.28 1.04-4.99 1.86 0.87-3.96 3.18 1.53-6.60 4.14 2.18-7.87
General stress         
   Never 1   1   1   1  
   Sometimes 1.35 0.84-2.18 2.31 1.22-4.40 1.79 1.06-3.04 1.56 1.01-2.40
   Often 2.27 1.33-3.87 5.10 2.59-10.02 2.63 1.48-4.67 2.93 1.83-4.69
   Very often 3.55 1.90-6.62 8.27 4.00-17.13 3.52 1.82-6.84 2.68 1.55-4.62
  1. Controlled for age, education, physical activity and adjusted for potential work-related confounders such as physical strain at work, workload, time pressure at work and job autonomy; bold figures = highly significant OR (p < .01)