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Table 3 Risk* of disability pension according to female gender, adjusted for sociodemographic and diagnostic variables

From: Gender differences in disability after sickness absence with musculoskeletal disorders: five-year prospective study of 37,942 women and 26,307 men

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Variables HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Female gender, ref men 1.21 1.15 1.27 1.09 1.03 1.14 1.03 0.98 1.09
Age ref <40 years          
40-49 4.04 3.74 4.35 3.97 3.68 4.29 3.87 3.59 4.18
50-59 9.33 8.67 10.03 8.38 7.77 9.05 8.21 7.60 8.86
60-62 13.02 11.79 14.38 11.21 10.12 12.42 10.91 9.84 12.10
Education ref >15 years          
< = 9 years 1.67 1.52 1.84 1.63 1.48 1.79 1.65 1.51 1.82
10-12 years 1.41 1.29 1.54 1.38 1.27 1.51 1.42 1.30 1.55
12-15 years 1.22 1.12 1.34 1.19 1.09 1.30 1.21 1.10 1.32
Annual income Ref >275 000 NOK          
< 124 999 1.61 1.45 1.78 1.18 1.06 1.32 1.24 1.11 1.38
125 000-199 999 1.75 1.60 1.92 1.63 1.49 1.79 1.63 1.49 1.79
200 000-274 999 1.51 1.38 1.65 1.51 1.38 1.64 1.49 1.36 1.62
Weekly working hours ref full time          
1-19     2.00 1.88 2.14 1.94 1.82 2.07
20-30     1.20 1.13 1.28 1.20 1.13 1.28
Caring for children          
No children     1.24 1.18 1.31 1.26 1.19 1.33
Diagnosis Ref back disorders          
Rheumatic disease        2.14 1.96 2.33
Osteoarthrosis        1.40 1.26 1.54
Myalgia/fibromyalgia        1.73 1.58 1.89
Neck problems        1.09 1.02 1.17
Other        0.89 0.82 0.96
Extremities        0.77 0.72 0.81
Fractures/injuries        0.50 0.46 0.54
  1. N = 26,307 men and 37,942 women sickness absent > 8 weeks with musculoskeletal, followed up for 5 years
  2. *Hazards ratio [HR] with 95% confidence intervals [95% CI]
  3. Model 1: Gender variable adjusted for age
  4. Model 2: Do + adjusted for education, income, weekly working hours, caring for children
  5. Model 3: Do + adjusted for diagnosis distribution