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Table 5 Activity rates( μ) recorded by 9 practices before and after learning workshops with attendant costs(Ω)

From: Back pain outcomes in primary care following a practice improvement intervention:- a prospective cohort study

  Before workshops
(n = 648)
After workshops
(n = 366)
  Before workshops
(n = 648)
After workshops
(n = 366)
Activity Rate Cost/patient (£) Rate Cost/patient (£) Activity Rate Cost/patient (£) Rate Cost/patient (£)
In practice      Sick certification     
Self-Help Literature 0.116 0.162 0.156 0.218 Given Med 3, 5 or 6 0.263 0.000 0.314 0.000
Self-help advice 0.003 0.077 0.000 0.000 Treatment modalities     
Exercise advice 0.008 0.193 0.003 0.068 Ultrasound 0.002 0.116 0.003 0.205
Lifesyle advice 0.002 0.039 0.000 0.000 Epidural 0.026 3.416 0.003 0.355
Advice about attending physio 0.005 0.116 0.000 0.000 Other injection 0.003 0.464 0.000 0.000
Contraceptive leaflet 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Consultant referral     
Referral for investigations      Gastroenterology 0.003 0.519 0.003 0.459
X-ray 0.053 0.946 0.063 1.131 Gynecology 0.003 0.448 0.003 0.396
MRI 0.009 2.921 0.005 1.721 Cardiology 0.005 0.900 0.008 1.590
Blood test 0.002 0.031 0.000 0.000 Rheumatology 0.020 5.184 0.027 7.049
Referral to community services      Rheumatologist acute back pain service 0.012 3.190 0.000 0.000
Stop smoking clinic 0.012 0.495 0.005 0.219 Back Pain Clinic 0.023 4.544 0.036 6.962
Other GP 0.005 0.515 0.000 0.000 Hospital Spinal Assessment Clinic 0.002 0.235 0.000 0.000
Physiotherapy 0.189 20.176 0.172 18.418 Geriatrics 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.773
Private Physiotherapy 0.009 0.371 0.000 0.000 Vascular surgeon 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.473
Chiropractor 0.008 0.425 0.011 0.601 Neurologist 0.005 0.946 0.008 1.672
Private Chiropractor 0.002 0.085 0.000 0.000 Urologist 0.003 0.495 0.000 0.000
Osteopath 0.020 1.005 0.000 0.000 Orthopaedic surgeon 0.040 6.108 0.044 6.645
Private Osteopath 0.005 0.232 0.000 0.000 Colorectal surgeon 0.002 0.278 0.000 0.000
Exercise therapy 0.005 0.139 0.000 0.000 General surgeon 0.005 0.751 0.011 1.770
Acupuncture 0.002 0.085 0.003 0.150 Plastic surgeon 0.002 0.207 0.003 0.366
Private acupuncture 0.002 0.085 0.000 0.000 ENT 0.009 1.122 0.000 0.000
Dietician 0.002 0.062 0.000 0.000 Opthalmology 0.003 0.328 0.005 0.579
Midwifery 0.002 0.077 0.000 0.000 Dermatology 0.006 0.736 0.005 0.650
Counsellor 0.003 0.124 0.000 0.000 Psychiatry 0.002 0.377 0.000 0.000
Contenance nurse 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.109 Unspecified     
Rehabilitation 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.109 Further care 0.026 1.445 0.071 3.907
Community matron 0.002 0.062 0.000 0.000 Hospital admission     
Pulmonary rehab 0.002 0.062 0.000 0.000 Emergency admission 0.016 1.597 0.008 0.844
Other 0.006 0.247 0.005 0.219 Other admission 0.014 1.391 0.008 0.820
  1. Rate (μ) = number of occurrences/number of patients in cohort. Cost/patient (Ω) = rate x NHS tariff