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Table 7 Characteristics of studies investigating levels of cytokines in PBMC of FMS patients.

From: Systematic review with meta-analysis: cytokines in fibromyalgia syndrome

Author, yr.
Diagnosis criteria
N patients/controls a) Material
b) Methods
c) Investigated targets
Results Modified CEBM
Hader, 1991
12/10 a) CD4+ T-lymphocytes from PBMC
b) T-cell culture; stimulation experiments with mitogens
c) IL-2
FMS: higher concentration of mitogen was necessary to achieve optimal IL-2 secretion; peak time of IL-2 secretion was delayed.
Addition of calcium did not correct the reduction in IL-2 secretion in patients with FMS; addition of phorbole myristate acetate led to normal IL-2 secretion.
3d 2 0.4
cite Wolfe, 1985
12 FMS/6 rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis controls/6 a) supernatant of PBMC
b) in vitro stimulation of PBMC with different L-tryptophan, contaminated L-tryptophan, peak E;
self established double sandwich ELISA
c) IL-4, IL-2, INF-γ, GM-CSF, IL-5, IL-10
In vitro stimulation of PBMC with different L-tryptophan preparations: 6/12 FMS patients, 2/12 controls: IL-5 and IL-10 production 3d 4 0.1
Wallace, 2001
56/56 a) serum, PBMC
c) IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, sIL-2 R, IL-1 RA, IFNγ, TNF
In FMS compared to controls:
IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, sIL-2 R, IFNγ, TNF: ↔ in sera + PBMC
IL-1 RA, IL-8: in sera
IL-1 RA, IL-6: in PBMC
IL-6: in PBMC of patients with disease duration > 2 years.
3d 3 0.5
Amel Kashipaz, 2003
22 FMS/CFS/19 a) PBMC
b) intracellular cytokine stain; flow cytometry
c) IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10, TNF
In FMS compared to controls:
IL-1α ↔
IL-6 ↔
IL-10 ↔
3d 2 0.7
Kaufmann, 2007
22/15 CRPS/37 a) T-cells
b) FACS analysis
c) IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10
No difference in percentage of cytokine producing cells between FMS and controls. 3d 2 0.6
Macedo, 2007
18/22 a) blood, PBMC
b) automated biochip array; before and after 1.5 mg of dexamethasone per os
c) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF
After dexamethasone: reduction of cytokines FMS > controls. 3d 2 0.4
Ortega, 2010
9/9 a) PBMC
c) IL-1b, TNF, IL-6, IL-10
For all cytokines investigated: higher values at baseline in FMS compared to controls; after aquatic exercise levels as in controls. 3d 3 0.3
  1. Abbreviations:
  2. ACR: American College of Rheumatology; CEMB: Center of Evidence Based Medicine; ELISA: enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; FMS: fibromyalgia syndrome; IL: interleukin; NOS: Newcastle Ottawa Scale; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; R: receptor; RA: receptor antagonist; s: soluble; W-MeQS: Würzburg Methodological Quality Score; yr: year