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Table 5 Characteristics of studies investigating plasma levels of cytokines in FMS patients.

From: Systematic review with meta-analysis: cytokines in fibromyalgia syndrome

Author, yr.
Diagnosis criteria
N patients/controls a) Material
b) Methods
c) Investigated targets
Results Modified CEBM
level
NOS W-MeQS
Wallace, 2001
ACR
56/56 a) serum, PBMC, plasma
b) ELISA
c) IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, sIL-2R, IL-1RA, IFNγ, TNF
In FMS compared to controls:
IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, sIL-2R, IFNγ, TNF: ↔ in sera +PBMC
IL-1RA: in serum
IL-8: in plasma
IL-1RA, IL-6: in PBMC
IL-6: in PBMC of patients with disease duration > 2 years.
3d 3 0.5
Bazzichi, 2007
ACR
285/40 (16 rheumatoid arthritis cases, two Sjögren's
syndrome cases, 16 systemic lupus erythematosus cases,
four systemic sclerosis cases, two undifferentiated connective-
tissue disease cases)/100
a) serum, plasma
b) ELISA
c) IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF
No intergroup difference for cytokines. 3d 3 0.2
Bazzichi, 2007
ACR
80/45 a) plasma
b) ELISA
c) IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF
IL-10, IL-8, TNF: FMS > controls 3c 3 0.9
Togo,
2008
ACR
7/9 a) plasma
b) Beadlyte multi-cytokine assay
c) IL-10, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1, TNF
No difference between groups. 3d 2 0.8
Zhang, 2008
ACR
92/69 family members/62 anonymous blood samples from blood bank a) plasma
b) Cytokine Twenty-Five-Plex Antibody Bead Kit
c) MCP-1, Eotaxin, IP-10, IL-13, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, TNF, IFNα, IFNγ, GM-CSF, MIG, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2R
Eotaxin and MIP: FMS > controls 3d 3 0.5
Feng,
2009
ACR
100 FMS patients and family members/35 unaffected parents a) plasma
b) Cytokine Twenty-Five-Plex Antibody Bead Kit
c) Eotaxin, MIP-1α, MCP-1, IP10, IL-12, IL-1β
Rare missense variants of the MEFV gene are associated with risk of FMS and are present in a subset of 15% of FMS patients. This subset had, on average, high levels of plasma IL-1b compared to FMS patients without rare variants, unaffected family members with or without rare variants, and unrelated controls of unknown genotype. 3d 3 0.4
Blanco, 2010
ACR
79/59 a) plasma
b) sandwich enzyme immunoassay kits
c) IL-8, TNF, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, MCP-1
Patients with FMS have lower systemic levels of MCP-2 than controls. 3d 3 0.4
  1. FMS > controls
  2. IL-8: Bazzichi, 2007b; Wallace, 2001
  3. FMS = controls
  4. IL-1β/IL-1: Wallance, 2001; Bazzichi, 2007a and b; Zhang, 2008; Feng, 2009; Togo, 2009
  5. IL-6: Wallance, 2001; Bazzichi, 2007a; Bazzichi, 2007a and b; Zhang, 2008; Togo, 2009
  6. IL-8: Bazzichi, 2007a; Zhang, 2008; Togo, 2009; Blanco, 2010b
  7. TNF: Wallance, 2001; Bazzichi, 2007a; Zhang, 2008; Togo, 2009; Blanco, 2010b
  8. IL-10: Wallace, 2001; Bazzichi, 2007a; Zhang, 2008; Togo, 2009
  9. MCP-1 and IP10: Zhang, 2001;Feng 2009
  10. IL-2: Wallace, 2001; Zhang, 2008
  11. IFNγ: Wallace, 2001; Zhang, 2008
  12. Abbreviations:
  13. ACR: American College of Rheumatology; CEMB: Center of Evidence Based Medicine; ELISA: enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; FMS: fibromyalgia syndrome; IL: interleukin; NOS: Newcastle Ottawa Scale; NR: not reported; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; R: receptor; RA: receptor antagonist; W-MeQS: Würzburg Methodological Quality Score; yr: year
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