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Table 4 Characteristics of studies investigating serum levels of cytokines in FMS patients.

From: Systematic review with meta-analysis: cytokines in fibromyalgia syndrome

Author, yr.
Diagnosis criteria
N patients/controls a) Material
b) Methods
c) Investigated targets
Results Modified CEBM
level
NOS W-MeQS
Maes, 1999
ACR
21/33 a) serum
B) ELISA
c) IL-6, sIL-6 R, sIL-1R, IL-1 RA
In FMS compared to controls:
IL-6↔
sIL-6 R
sIL-1R
IL-1 RA
3d 2 0.3
Pay. 2000
ACR
25 FMS/25 chronic musculoskeletal complaints/25 controls a) serum
b) ELISA
c) IL-1b, TNF, IL-6
No difference for pro-inflammatory cytokines in FMS and controls. 3d 3 0.4
Wallace, 2001
ACR
56/56 a) serum, PBMC, plasma
b) ELISA
c) IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, sIL-2 R, IL-1 RA, IFNγ, TNF
In FMS compared to controls:
IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, sIL-2 R, IFNγ, TNF: ↔ in sera +PBMC
IL-1 RA: in serum
IL-8: in plasma
IL-1 RA, IL-6: in PBMC
IL-6: in PBMC of patients with disease duration > 2 years.
3d 3 0.5
Gür,
2002
ACR
81/32 a) serum
b) ELISA
c) IL-1, IL-2R, IL-6,
IL-8
In FMS compared to controls:
IL-1 ↔
IL-2 R
IL-6 ↔
IL-8
3d 2 0.4
Schwarz, 2002
ACR
17/17 a) serum
b) ELISA
c) IL-6
IL-6 during tryptophan depletion in FMS 3d 4 0.3
Ardic, 2006
ACR
21/10 (data not given) a) serum
b) ELISA
c) IL-1 (after balneo therapy)
After balneo therapy:
IL-1↓ in FMS
3d 3 0.2
Üçeyler, 2006
ACR
26/40 a) serum; whole blood
b) qRT-PCR;
ELISA
c) IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, TNF, TGF β1
In FMS compared to controls:
IL-2 ↔
IL-4
IL-8 ↔
IL-10
TGF β1 ↔
TNF ↔
3d 4 0.8
Bazzichi, 2007
ACR
285/40 (16 rheumatoid arthritis cases, two Sjögren's
syndrome cases, 16 systemic lupus erythematosus cases,
four systemic sclerosis cases, two undifferentiated connective-
tissue disease cases)/100
a) serum, plasma
b) ELISA
c) IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF
No intergroup difference for cytokines. 3d 3 0.2
Wang, 2008
ACR
20/80 a) serum
b) Bio-Plex cytokine assay
c) IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-4, TNF
At baseline: IL-8 in FMS > controls; no difference for other cytokines. 3d 4 0.4
Hernandez, 2010
ACR
64/25 a) serum
b) ELISA
c) TNF, IL-1, IL-6
TNF: FMS < controls
IL-1: not detectable in FMS
IL-6: FMS > controls
3c 4 0.6
Iannucelli, 2010
ACR
51/25 tension type headache/15 a) serum
b) multiplex bead-based sandwich immunoassay
c) IL-1b, IL-1Ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, INFγ, TNF
FMS > controls: IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-10, TNF 3d 3 0.7
Ross, 2010
ACR
24/none a) serum
b) bead-based immunofluorescence assay
c) IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF
IL-6 and IL-8: FMS responders (i.e. GH response to exercise of ≥ 5 ng/mL) higher than FMS non-responders. For IL-1a vice versa. 4 1 0.2
  1. FMS > controls
  2. IL-1 RA: Iannuccelli 2010; Maes, 1999; Wallace 2001
  3. IL-6: Iannucelli, 2010; Schwarz, 2002; Hernandez, 2010
  4. IL-8: Gür, 2002; Wang, 2008
  5. FMS = controls
  6. IL-6: Maes, 1999; Pay, 2000; Wallace, 2001; Gür, 2002b; Bazzichi, 2007; Wang 2008
  7. IL-1b/IL-1: Pay, 2000; Wallace, 2001; Gür, 2002b; Bazzichi, 2007; Iannucelli, 2010
  8. TNF: Pay, 2000; Wallace, 2001; Bazzichi, 2007; Wang, 2008
  9. IL-2: Wallace, 2001; Üçeyler, 2006
  10. IL-10: Wallace, 2001; Bazzichi, 2007; Wang, 2008
  11. IFN-g: Wallace, 2001; Iannucelli, 2010
  12. IL-4: Wang, 2008; Iannucelli, 2010
  13. Abbreviations:
  14. ACR: American College of Rheumatology; CEMB: Center of Evidence Based Medicine; ELISA: enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; FMS: fibromyalgia syndrome; IL: interleukin; KYN: kynurenine; NOS: Newcastle Ottawa Scale; NR: not reported; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; qRT-PCR: quantitative real-time PCR; R: receptor; RA: receptor antagonist; W-MeQS: Würzburg Methodological Quality Score; yr: year
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