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Table 2 Baseline and follow-up measurements

From: Functional outcome in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity: design of a prospective cohort study

Outcome Method Data*source At baseline At 6 months At 12 months At 18 months
Functional outcomes
Mobility Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36): subscale on physical functioning [34, 35] Q x x x x
Participation Keele Assessment of Participation (KAP). Person-perceived, performance based participation [37] Q x x x x
Functional independence Katz Index of independence in activities of daily living (KATZ) [36] Q x x x x
Quality of life       
QoL One item of the SF-36. Cantril's self anchoring ladder [38] Q x x x x
Possible predictors of functioning and QoL
Pain Chronic Pain Grade (CPG), domains on pain intensity and disability [47]
Items measuring frequency, duration and intensity of pain [48]
Q x x x x
Comorbidity Presence of various illness (yes/no) Q x   x  
Physical performance Short Physical Performance Battery Score:
balance (tandem stance), timed 6 m walk, 5x chair stands [49]
P x    
Frailty Unintentional weight loss: Based on BMI [50] P x    
  Exhaustion: One item from the SF-36 ("how much of the time in the past 4 weeks did you have a lot of energy?") [50] Q x    
  Weakness: Measuring grip strength [51] P x    
  Slowness: Measuring walking speed [51] P x    
  Low physical activity: Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) [50, 52, 53] Q x    
Utility EQ-5D+c. Measures health outcome: mobility self-care, usual activities, pain, anxiety/depression and cognition [54] Q x   x  
Functional status Short Form-36 Health Survey: domains on physical functioning, social functioning and role limitations [35] Q x x x x
Well being Short Form-36 Health Survey: domains on mental health, vitality and pain [35] Q x x x x
Overall health Short Form-36 Health Survey: domains on general health perception and health change [35] Q x x x x
Anxiety and depression Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) [55] Q x x x x
Personal control Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ) [56] Q x x x x
Coping with pain Two- item Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) [57, 58] Q x x x x
  Pain Coping Inventory (PCI): subscale resting (5 items) [59] Q x x x x
Self-efficacy Arthritis Self Efficacy Scale (ASES) [60] Q x x x x
Mobility outside the home Access to material goods and services (car, public transport, GP, chemist, internet) and living environment, residential. Q x    
Social isolation
and perceived social support
Social Support Scale (SOS) [61] Q x    
Body Mass Index Based on height and weight, measured by a standardized protocol P x    
Falls Items on past falls      
Life style factors Items on smoking behaviour and alcohol consumption Q x    
Sociodemographic characteristics Age, gender, ethnicity, living arrangements, ZIP code, marital status, education, employment status Q x   x  
Health care utilization and health care needs
General health care use 6-items(yes/no): hospital admissions, unplanned GP visits, homecare, temporary admission nursing or care home, day care and day treatment Q x   x  
Health care use for joint pain Current use of pain medication, creams, gels or braces. Participation in exercise programmes. Q x    
  1. * Q = Questionnaire, P = Physical assessment