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Table 2 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Movement control exercise versus general exercise to reduce disability in patients with low back pain and movement control impairment. A randomised controlled trial

Inclusion criteria - Age 18 to 75 years
- Non-acute LBP (> 6 weeks duration of symptoms) and less than 3 months of sick leave due to LBP
- Two or more positive tests for impaired movement control (Luomajoki et al 2007)
- At least 5 points on Roland Morris Disability questionnaire [54]
- Clinical behaviour: posture and movement aggravate and ease symptoms; symptoms are relieved by reducing the strain on the lumbar region
- Written informed consent
Exclusion criteria - Specific LBP (Fractures, carcinoma, anomalies, nerve root affection with neurological signs e.g. sensitivity or reflex loss, muscle weakness, radicular pain below the knee)
- Less than 6 weeks post-surgery following all surgery on the lower back
- post-surgery with spondylodesis
- high level of psychosocial risk factors (> 130 points on the ÖMPQ)
- Peripheral or central neurological disease
- Contraindications for exercise, e.g. major cardiovascular disease or postural hypotension
- Inability to understand the purpose of the study
- Psychological or psychiatric problems
- Chronic abuse of toxic substances such as drugs or alcohol
- Use of neuroleptics, sedatives, anti-epileptics and antidepressants