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Table 1 Five distinct directional patterns of movement control impairment [72] (personal communication)

From: Movement control exercise versus general exercise to reduce disability in patients with low back pain and movement control impairment. A randomised controlled trial

Direction of movement control impairment Pain aggravation Pain relief Movement control deficit
Flexion Sustained flexion of lumbar spine, e.g. when sitting Extension of lumbar spine, e.g. when standing and walking Difficulty controlling lordosis in sitting and flexed positions
Active Extension Sustained extension of lumbar spine Flexion of lumbar spine, relaxing in flexed posture. Breathing exercises Difficulty flexing when sitting or breathing with diaphragm
Passive extension Extension of lumbar spine, e.g. when standing or walking slowly Flexion of lumbar spine, e.g. while sitting Tilting pelvis posteriorly
Frontal pain control unilateral pain in unilateral loading and sidebending Control pelvis and thorax in frontal plain Maintain symmetric posture
Multidirectional pattern Multidirectional Changing lumbar spine position Difficulty assuming neutral lordotic spinal positions
  1. Description: Specification of main symptoms and signs to classify the direction of movement control impairment