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Table 1 Stages of joint infection [5]

From: Septic arthritis of the knee: Presentation of a novel irrigation-suction system tested in a cadaver study

Gächter The classification according to Gächter included IV Stages:
Stage I Opacity of fluid, redness of the synovial membrane, possible petechial bleeding, no radiological alterations.
Stage II Severe inflammation, fibrinous deposition, pus, no radiologic alterations.
Stage III Thickening of the synovial membrane, compartment formation ("sponge-like" arthroscopic view, especially in the suprapatellar pouch), no radiologic alterations.
Stage IV Aggressive pannus with infiltration of the cartilage, possibly undermining the cartilage, radiological signs of subchondral osteolysis, possible osseous erosions and cysts.
Jensen The classification according to Jensen included III stages:
Stage I Opaque effusion with high cell count, hyperaemia of the synovium.
Stage II Putrid effusion, fibrin coatings, synovial hypertrophy with petechial bleeding.
Stage III Severe villous synovitis with (partial) tamponade of the joint, synovial necrosis, synovial adhesions, cartilage destruction.
Kuner The classification according to Kuner was more a clinical description rather than an arthroscopic staging:
Stage I Purulent synovitis
Stage II Joint empyema
Stage III Panarthritis
Stage IV Chronic arthritis.