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Table 3 Description of the exercises for the Back School group

From: Effectiveness of the back school and mckenzie techniques in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

Exercise Position Sets/Duration
Diaphragmatic breathing Seated, inhale slowly and deeply through the nose, elevating the abdomen. Breathe air out the through the mouth, raising the navel in the direction of the back. 1 set of 10 repetitions
Stretching of the erector spinae muscles Supine position with flexed knees and supported feet. Bring first one knee and then the other toward the thorax, join the hands across the thighs, and push them in the direction of the thorax. 30 seconds
Repeat 10 times
Stretching of the posterior lower limbs muscles Supine position with one of the legs supported on the mattress and the other flexed approximately 90° at the hip and knees extended, maintained with help from a bed sheet. 30 seconds
Repeat 10 times
Stretching of the anterior hip muscles Lying down in lateral decubitus over the limb that will be stretched with the hip in a neutral position and knees flexed. Raise the heel of the leg underneath in the direction of the gluteus, keeping the back aligned. Contra lateral member in triple flexion of 90° and the internal side of the knee supported by the mattress. 30 seconds
Repeat 10 times
Kinaesthetic training Seated, move the pelvis, making a front and back pelvic inclination at a comfortable range. 1 set of 10 repetitions
Strengthening of the abdominal musculature a) Prone position with two feet supported on the mattress, upon exhaling raise head, shoulders, and thorax, with arms placed at the side of the body, maintaining the alignment of the head with the cervical spine. Contracting the transverse abdominis, pelvic floor and paravertebral muscles.
b) Prone position with head supported on the mattress, hands at the side of the body. With an extension of the knee of one leg, raise it in the direction of the mattress surface, while the other remains in triple flexion in contact with the trunk. Before the extended leg touches the mattress, alternate the movement bringing it in flexion, while the other is stretched. The leg extension should be performed while exhaling, maintaining transverse abdominis, paravertebral, and pelvic floor muscles contracted.
a) 1 set of 10 repetitions
b) 1 set of 10 repetitions for each leg.