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Table 2 Details on therapeutic techniques and co-therapies of the studies analysed

From: Efficacy of hypnosis/guided imagery in fibromyalgia syndrome - a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials

Author (Reference) Types and duration of treatment in hypnosis/guided imagery group Types and duration of treatment in controls Comedication allowed Other cotherapies Side effects reported
Alvarez [23] Ericksonian hypnosis, individual:
Induction NR; 5 techniques could be used for utilisation: transformation of pain or emotion; metaphors; dissociation of pain; perceptions of other body sensations; pleasant imagery; posthypnotic suggestions of negative hallucinations and amnesia of pain
60 min, 6- 8 sessions over 6 months
Total: 420 min
Cognitive intervention: Sham hypnosis, individual: General issues talking with the therapist; physical sign check list to verify that the patients were not in hypnotic trance *
60 min, 6- 8 sessions over 6 months
Total: 420 min
NSAIDs, amitriptyline, physiotherapy kept stable during study *
NR
4/20 with hypnosis drop out lack of efficacy
7/20 with sham hypnosis drop out lack of efficacy
Castel [24] CBT plus standardised hypnosis; group: Induction by fixation and palpepral catalepsy; deepening by visualisation; suggestion of an analgesic stream eliminating pain and creating feelings of well-being; posthypnotic suggestions NR
90 min (of which 20 min hypnosis) for 12 weeks; daily home training with audiocasettes recommended
Total: 1080 min
Active control: CBT; group. Information in FMS, cognitive restructuring, assertiveness training, behavioral goal setting, problems solving;
90 min (of which 20 min relaxation training) for 12 weeks
Total: 1080 min
Study arm treatment as usual not used for comparison
Analgesics, antidepressants, sedatives, myorelaxants
NR
NR
Grøndahl [25] Standardised hypnosis, individual: Relaxation, visualisation of positive body experience; suggestion of increase of self-efficacy, posthypnotic suggestions NR
10 wks, 1/week, 30 min
Total: 300 min
Treatment as usual: Medication and physiotherapy or chiropractic therapy
Total Min NR
Medication and physiotherapy or chiropractic therapy
NR
NR
Haanen [26] Standardised hypnosis, individual and daily audiocassette: Induction by arm levitation; suggestions of ego-strengthening, pain control and improvement sleep; posthypnotic suggestions NR
8 × 60 min over 3 months; daily home training
Total: 360 min (without home training)
Active control
Physical therapy: Massage and muscle relaxation 1-2 h/week over 12 weeks
Total: 720-1440 min
Only paracetamol allowed
NR
NR
Menziers [27] Standardised guided imagery, indvidual, at home:
3 standardised audio cassettes: Relaxation, signal breath to elicit relaxation; imagination of pleasant scene; suggestions of feeling of well-being and actions and behaviors free of FMS-symptoms
30 min daily for 6 weeks recommended
Total: Median of 44 (range 37-136) exercises
Treatment as usual
Total Min NR
Treatment as usual
NR
NR
Rucco [28] Ericksonian hypnosis, individual: Metaphors for induction, Utilisation: identification and solution of intrapsychic conflicts; posthypnotic suggestions NR
Frequency of sessions individualised over 6 months
Active control: Autogenic training in group
Practice: 8 weeks, twice a week, 15 min;
Recommendation of daily practice over 6 months
Total: 240 min
No comedication allowed
NR
NR
  1. * Details provided on request; NR = Not reported and not provided on request