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Table 1 Main characteristics of controlled studies with hypnosis/guided imagery in fibromyalgia syndrome

From: Efficacy of hypnosis/guided imagery in fibromyalgia syndrome - a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials

Author Country Year Setting Referral [Reference] Mean age (years) Women % Exclusion criteria Diagnosis of FMS Total study population Screened/randomized N (%) Total/Completing therapy N(%) Treatment group Total/Completing therapy N(%) Control group Total/Completing therapy N (%) Outcomes used for metaanalysis
Alvarez
2007
Mexico
University Hospital
Rheumatology clinics
[23]
44 yrs
100% women
100% Mexican mez-stizos
No other significant painful or chronic comorbidities ACR 50/43
(86)
43/11 (26)
20/7 *
(35)
23/4*
(17)
Pain VAS 0-100 *
Fatigue NA
Sleep NA
Depressed mood NA
HRQOL: FIQ total *
No follow- up
Castel
2009
Spain
University Hospital
Pain clinic
[24]
44 yrs
95% women
100% white
Other severe chronic pain condition; severe psychopathology; moderate cognitive impairment;pending litigation ACR
18-60 years
At least 6 years education
NR/47
35/32 (91)
17/16
(94)
18/16 (89) Pain NRS 0-10
Fatigue NA
Sleep NA
Depressed mood NA
HRQOL FIQ total
No follow-up
Grøndhal
2008
Norway
General practice
General practices
[25]
23-54 yrs
75% women
100% white
Organic diseases
Severe psychiatric disorder
Clinical diagnosis of chronic widespread pain 18/16
(89)
16/12 (75)
8/7
(88)
8/5 (63) Pain NRS 1-7* (a)
Fatigue NRS 1-7 * (a)
Sleep NA
Depressed mood NRS 1-7 * (a)
HRQOL NA
1 year without control
Haanen
1991
Netherlands
Rheumatology department regional hospital
NR
[26]
45 yrs
95% women
NR
Organic diseases Smythe
Normal blood test
NP
40/37 (93)
20/17
(85)
20/20 (100) Pain VAS 0-10 **
Sleep VAS 0-10 **
Fatigue VAS 0-10 ***
Depressed mood NA
HRQOL NA
12 weeks
Menziers
2006
USA
University hospital
Physicians and clinics
[27]
50 yrs
98% women
90% white
Inflammatory rheumatic disease
Major communicative disorder
Clinical diagnosis
Age > 18
FIQ-Total > 20
MMSE score > 25
NP
48/NP
24/NR 24/NR Pain VAS 0-10
Fatigue: NA
Sleep NA
Depressed mood NA
HRQOL FIQ total
4 weeks
Rucco
1995
Italy
Regional hospital
[28]
38 yrs
100% women
NR
Analgesic medication
Major psychiatric disorder
ACR criteria
Normal blood tests
NP
53/35 (66)
26/24
(92)
27/11
(41)
Pain VAS 0-10
Fatigue NA
Sleep VAS 0-10
Depressed mood NA
HRQOL NA
No follow up
  1. Abbreviations: * Data provided on request; (a) adjusted for baseline values; ** Median used for analysis; Standard deviation not reported; calculated from mean of other trials; *** Median not entered into meta-analysis; no calculation of standard deviation from other trials possible
  2. FIQ = Fibromyalgia Impact questionnaire; HRQOL = Health-related quality of life; NA = Not assessed; NP = Not provided on request; NRS = Numeric Rating Scale; VAS = Visual Analogue Scale;