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Table 1 Clinical tests for Lumbar Motor Control (LMC)

From: Inter-examiner reproducibility of tests for lumbar motor control

Test name Subject position, performance and measurement equipment Modified by previous test (reference)
1) Joint position sense (JPS) Sitting, feet unsupported, LB in neutral, 5 cm tape-measure, taped at 0 cm at S1, and marked by laser pointer. LB movement from max anterior-max posterior tilt. Subject reposition of LB (neutral), distance measured between 0 cm (S1) and laser pointer. [13, 14]
2) Sitting Forward lean (SFL) Sitting, feet supported, LB in neutral, mark with 15 cm ruler at S1 and 10 cm above. 5 repetitions of hip flexion to max 120°, distance between marks (0 cm and 10 cm) measured (cm). [13, 14, 28]
3) Sitting knee extension (SKE) Sitting, feet unsupported, LB in neutral, 5 cm tape-measure, taped at 0 cm at S1, and marked by laser pointer. 5 repetitions in knee extension up to at least -10°, distance measured between 0 cm (S1) and laser pointer. [31, 28]
4) Bent knee fall out (BKFO) Supine lying, one knee flexed 120°, LB and pelvis in neutral. 5 cm tape-measure placed between right and left ASIS, with 0 cm and laser pointer placed lateral to right ASIS. 5 repetitions of abduction/external hip rotation up to max. 45°, distance measured between laser pointer and 0-point (cm). [17, 1214]
5) Leg lowering (LL) Supine lying, hips flexed 90°, knees maximally flexed, LB in neutral. BPU placed under LB, inflated to 40 mm Hg. LB downward press to increase BPU to 45 mm Hg. 5 repetitions of leg lowering. Increase measured in BPU (mm Hg). [31, 13, 14]
  1. LB = low back, ASIS = Anterior Superior Iliac Spine, BPU = Biopressure Unit.