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Table 2 Content of the water-based (hydrotherapy) exercise group

From: Randomised controlled trial examining the effect of exercise in people with rheumatoid arthritis taking anti-TNFα therapy medication

  Duration/no. of repetitions Exercise
Warm up 5 mins • Walking forwards/backwards/sideways
• Jogging on spot, kicking heels to buttocks
• Jumping jacks, stride jumping
• Joint ROM*- neck rotation/side flexion, shoulder rolls, wrist/hand ROM, trunk rotation
Upper limb 10-20 reps • BE* shoulder horizontal ab/adduction
• BE shoulder glides into abduction
• BE shoulder pro/retraction ( elbow flexion/extension) and BE shoulder extension
• BA* shoulder stretch at wall into abduction and flexion (30 secs hold x 2 reps)
• TR* shoulder flexion/extension, ab/adduction, horizontal ab/adduction
• TR elbow flexion/extension
Encouraging scapular stability and trunk stability with all upper limb exercises
Lower limb 10-20 reps • BA hamstring stretch (30 secs hold x 2)
• BA hip adductor/flexor stretch (30 sec hold × 2)
• TR hip flexion/extension, ab/adduction
• TR knee flexion/extension
• Single leg cycling
Encouraging trunk stability with all lower limb exercises
Back 10 reps • Hanging on wall- Lumbar flexion, extension, rotation, side flexion
• Standing at wall- Trunk flexion/extension
• Transversus abdominus contraction while pushing float under water
Aerobic 10-15 mins (circuit - 5 stations × 2-3 mins) • Station 1 = Aqua-jogging with running belt
• Station 2 = Step ups
• Station 3 = Jogging lengths of pool
• Station 4 = Cycling lengths of pool sitting on woggle
• Station 5 = Jogging on spot
Cool down 5 mins • Walking forwards/backwards/sideways
• Posterior shoulder stretch and tricep stretch (30 sec hold x 2)
• Quads stretch (30 sec hold × 2)
• Hip adductor stretch in standing- transfer weight
  1. *ROM = range of movement, BE= buoyancy eliminated, B A = buoyancy assisted, BR = buoyancy resisted, TR= turbulence resisted