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Table 4 Multivariable* Predictors of use of opioid medications

From: Predictors of pain and use of pain medications following primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA): 5,707 THAs at 2-years and 3,289 THAs at 5-years

  Multivariable-adjusted 2-year Multivariable-adjusted 5-year
  Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) p-value Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) p-value
Female Gender (Ref, Male) 2.0 (1.3, 3.0) <0.01 2.4 (1.4, 4.0) <0.01
Age (Ref, ≤60 yrs)       
   >60-70 yrs 0.9 (0.5, 1.5) 0.71 0.7 (0.3, 1.3) 0.25
   >70-80 yrs 0.7 (0.4, 1.3) 0.22 0.8 (0.4, 1.7) 0.63
   >80 yrs 1.0 (0.5, 2.3) 0.93 1.1 (0.4, 3.3) 0.84
BMI (Ref, <25 kg/m2)       
   25-29.9 0.9 (0.6, 1.5) 0.79 1.5 (0.8, 2.8) 0.17
   30-34.9 1.3 (0.8, 2.2) 0.29 2.0 (1.0, 3.9) 0.04
   35-39.9 1.0 (0.5, 2.3) 0.91 0.7 (0.2, 2.4) 0.53
   ≥ 40 1.4 (0.6, 3.6) 0.45 1.3 (0.4, 4.9) 0.65
Deyo-Charlson index ( 5-point change) 1.3 (0.8, 2.1) 0.25 1.5 (0.8, 2.7) 0.18
Anxiety (Ref, no) 0.8 (0.3, 1.9) 0.60 2.0 (0.8, 5.0) 0.14
Depression (Ref, no) 2.0 (1.1, 3.7) 0.02 1.4 (0.6, 3.4) 0.42
  1. *Adjusted for ASA score, distance from the medical center, income and the operative diagnosis, in addition to the above variables
  2. Regression: n/N = 114/4,830 at 2-yr FU; n/N = 78/2,807 at 5-yr FU
  3. Numbers in Bold indicate significant Odds ratios and p-values