Skip to main content

Table 2 Gustilo-Anderson Classification of Open Fractures

From: Fluid Lavage of Open Wounds (FLOW): design and rationale for a large, multicenter collaborative 2 × 3 factorial trial of irrigating pressures and solutions in patients with open fractures

Open fracture type Characteristics
Type I Clean wound smaller than 1 cm in diameter, simple fracture pattern, no skin crushing.
Type II A laceration larger than 1 cm but without significant soft tissue crushing, including no flaps, degloving, or contusion. Fracture pattern may be more complex.
Type III An open segmental fracture or a single fracture with extensive soft tissue injury. Also included are injuries older than 8 hours. Type III injuries are subdivided into three types.
Type IIIA Adequate soft tissue coverage of the fracture despite high energy trauma or extensive laceration or skin flaps.
Type IIIB Inadequate soft tissue coverage with periosteal stripping. Soft tissue reconstruction is usually necessary.
Type IIIC Any open fracture that is associated with an arterial injury that requires repair.