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Table 1 Definition of preliminary criteria to define a sub-group of patients likely to benefit from traction.

From: A randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of mechanical traction for sub-groups of patients with low back pain: study methods and rationale

Criterion Definition
1. Peripheralization with extension movement Presence of peripheralization with at least one of the following extension movements during the baseline examination: single extension standing, repeated extension standing, sustained extension prone (prone on elbows), or repeated extension prone (prone press-ups).
Peripheralization is judged to have occurred if a pain or paresthesia moves distally away from the spine toward the periphery, or paresthesia or a neurological sign is worsened or produced during or after the movement [48].
2. Positive crossed straight leg raise test Reproduction of familiar symptoms in the symptomatic lower extremity with passive straight leg raising of the unaffected leg at an angle of 70° or less [49].
Positive Sub-Grouping Status (SG+): Either criterion 1 or 2 is present (or both are present)
Negative Sub-Grouping Status (SG-): Both criterion 1 and 2 are absent