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Table 2 In vitro model to simulate the clinical failure modes with various parameters

From: Modular titanium alloy neck adapter failures in hip replacement - failure mode analysis and influence of implant material

Hip contact force 3800 N
Frequency 1 Hz/15 Hz
Stress and rest phases 1,000 cycles, 1.5 minutes rest, 1,000 cycles, 1.5 minutes rest repeat
Contamination Dry, Blood, Serum, Cortical bone particles
Surrounding medium Saline 0.9% pH 7 Saline 1.8% pH 2 CaCl2 solution pH 2 FeCl3 solution pH 0.5