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Table 3 Subjective outcome concerning quality of life (n = 45).

From: Outcome and clinical changes in patients 3, 6, 12 months after a severe or major hand injury - can sense of coherence be an indicator for rehabilitation focus?

Quality of life (SF-36) Three months
n = 44
Six months
n = 45
Twelve months
n = 45
Group Differencesa
P-value
Effect sizeb
3 m vs 12 m
Population normsc
SF-36
Z scoredfor comparison 12 m vs population norms
  Mean score (SD)     
Physical Functioning 76 (13.9) 84 (12.4) 87 (12.6) < 0.001 0.8 91 (17.3) -0.2 (0.73)
Role Physical 22 (31.9) 47 (41.0) 60 (40.0) < 0.001 1.2 87 (28.4) -1.0 (1.46)
Bodily Pain 60 (23.3) 70 (20.0) 72 (23.8) 0.006 0.5 77 (25.4) -0.2 (0.95)
General Health 77 (17.1) 76 (20.8) 77 (22.0) 0.978 0.0 78 (21.0) -0.0 (1.01)
Vitality 59 (19.5) 63 (22.2) 64 (20.0) 0.444 0.2 71 (22.0) -0.3 (0.92)
Social Functioning 84 (20.7) 84 (22.4) 89 (19.2) 0.120 0.2 90 (18.6) -0.1 (1.02)
Role Emotional 54 (44.3) 67 (42.0) 71 (38.0) 0.127 0.4 89 (25.6) -0.7 (1.49)
Mental Health 72 (20.4) 72 (23.3) 75 (20.7) 0.592 0.1 82 (18.1) -0.4 (1.16)
  1. aFriedman's test. bEffect size for SF-36 was calculated with mean change in score, three months to follow up after twelve months, divided by standard deviation of the three months score. cPopulation norms were obtained from the Swedish SF-36 database for population norms (n = 8930) and were age and gender matched with individuals (n = 1180). dZ-scores (individual value minus mean value of populations norms divided by SD from the population norms) were calculated for all SF-36 parameters at 12 months. SF-36 (0-100) higher score indicates a better health status 0 (poor health) to 100 (optimal health).