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Table 3 Comparison of the Performance Characteristics of Physical Examination Tests with Physician Blinding to Imaging (Independent), and No Physician Blinding to Imaging (Non-Independent)

From: Bias in the physical examination of patients with lumbar radiculopathy

Examination Component Independent Group Non-Independent Group p-value (between groups)
  Sens. (95% CI) Sens. (95% CI)  
Sensitivity
Provocative testing 33 (24-42) 31 (25-38) 0.77
Motor strength testing 39 (27-53) 48 (38-57) 0.33
Pinprick sensory testing 20 (12-34) 36 (27-46) 0.05
Reflex testing 32 (16-53) 49 (37-62) 0.17
Specificity
Provocative testing 95 (89-98) 94 (89-96) 0.66
Motor strength testing 89 (84-92) 86 (82-89) 0.35
Pinprick sensory testing 93 (89-96) 92 (89-94) 0.49
Reflex testing 90 (81-95) 92 (86-95) 0.59
  1. Sens. - Sensitivity (%); Spec. - Specificity (%);CI - Confidence interval