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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis using NDI and neck pain as 12 months outcome for 111 acute WAD1-2 patients

From: Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?

Explanatory variables NDI score > 8% NRS-11 neck pain score > 4
  Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
  OR p* OR 95% CI p* OR p* OR 95% CI p*
Gender, females vs. males 1.88 0.105    0.210† 3.44 0.016 3.25 (1.00,10.50) 0.038
Age, years 1.02 0.343    0.093† 1.02 0.310    0.070†
Initial pain, NRS-11 score 1.27 0.016    0.699† 1.50 0.001    0.267†
Posttraumatic stress, per 10 IES points 1.53 0.001 1.46 (1.10,1.94) 0.007 1.65 0.001 1.93 (1.24,3.00) 0.001
Expectation of recovery, low vs. high 5.53 0.001 4.66 (1.50,14.47) 0.005 4.07 0.009 21.56 (2.52,184.16) 0.006
Expectation of recovery × posttraumatic stress       1.23 0.160 0.51 (0.26,1.00) 0.048
Grades 2-3 alar ligament changes on MRI‡, (yes vs. no)       2.07 0.123    0.369†
  1. NDI = neck disability index; WAD = whiplash-associated disorders; NRS-11 = 11-point numeric rating scale; OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; IES = impact of event scale; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging.
  2. * P values are based on likelihood-ratio test.
  3. † Not in the final model, p-value for adding term to final model.
  4. ‡ Highest assigned grade if different between right and left side.