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Table 1 Clinical data and MRI ligament findings at injury of 111 WAD1-2 patients

From: Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?

  N % Median (range)
Clinical characteristics    
   Women 63 56.8  
   Age, years    29.8 (18.1-69.2)
   Higher education (> 12 years) 50 45.0  
   Initial neck pain intensity, NRS-11 score (0 to 10)    4.0 (1.0 - 9.0)
   Time accident - onset neck pain, hours    0.5 (0.0-48.0)
   Pain maximum in upper neck (n = 105) 41 39.0  
   Post traumatic stress, IES score (0 to 75)    19.0 (0.0-67.0)
   High expectation of recovery (vs. low) 90 81.1  
   Time accident - MRI, days    5.0 (0.0-13.0)
Accident-related factors    
   Impact direction    
Rear-end collision 69 62.2  
Front-end collision 25 22.5  
Side impact collision 10 9.0  
Other (e.g. roll-over, complex) 7 6.3  
   Head turned at impact (n = 93) 29 31.2  
   Head injury at accident 13 11.7  
   Seat belt used at impact 105 94.6  
   Head restraint present at impact (n = 107) 94 87.9  
   Airbag deployment at impact (n = 110) 15 13.6  
   Patient car speed at impact, km/h (n = 109)    0.0 (0.0 - 75.0)
   Relative car speed* at impact, km/h (n = 84)    45.0 (10.0-150.0)
MRI ligament findings    
   Grades 2-3 alar ligament changes† 38 34.2  
   Grades 2-3 transverse ligament changes† 25 22.5  
  1. MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; WAD = whiplash-associated disorders; NRS-11 = 11-point numeric rating scale.
  2. *Difference between vehicle speeds if rear end collision, otherwise sum of vehicle speeds.
  3. † Highest assigned grade if different between right and left side.