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Table 3 Proportion of clinical significant improvements, the relative risk and the risk difference

From: The long-term effects of naprapathic manual therapy on back and neck pain - Results from a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

Improvement Index Group Control Group RR RD p-value
  (imp/not imp)† (imp/not imp)† (95% CI) (95% CI)  
26 weeks      
Pain* 65% 44% 1.5 21%  
  (n = 120/65) (n = 78/99) (1.2-1.8) (10-30) <0.001
Disability* 74% 63% 1.2 11%  
(CPQ) (n = 110/38) (n = 82/48) (1.0-1.4) (4-22) 0.043
Disability* 66% 45% 1.4 21%  
(WDQ) (n = 114/59) (n = 75/90) (1.2-1.8) (10-31) <0.001
52 weeks      
Pain* 67% 50% 1.3 17%  
  (n = 120/59) (n = 79/79) (1.1-1.6) (7-27) 0.002
Disability* 75% 58% 1.3 17%  
(CPQ) (n = 109/37) (n = 68/49) (1.1-1.5) (5-28) 0.005
Disability* 68% 49% 1.4 19%  
(WDQ) (n = 116/55) (n = 72/75) (1.1-1.7) (8-30) <0.001
  1. The proportion of patients that reached clinically significant improvements in the intervention groups, the relative risk (RR), and the risk difference (RD), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and p-values at 26 and 52 weeks follow-ups.
  2. * A clinically important decrease corresponding to at least a two-step decrease in pain score from baseline, or at least a one-step decrease in disability score from baseline, respectively.
  3. † Numbers of very much improved/not very much improved in the intervention groups.