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Table 1 Prognostic indicators

From: The long-term effects of naprapathic manual therapy on back and neck pain - Results from a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

Prognostic indicators Index Group (n = 206) Control Group (n = 203)
Mean age (SD), years 46 (11) 48 (10)
Women, % 74 68
Location of the worst pain, %   
Neck 56 61
Back 36 34
Neck and back 8 5
Duration of pain, %   
<3 months 22 29
3-12 months 20 18
>12 months 58 54
Previous episodes of current pain in back and/or neck, % 88 85
Pain or trouble from five body regions or more, % 67 56*
Education, at least, %   
1-9 years 13 11
10-12 years 34 34
13-16 years 45 47
>16 years 8 8
Depression, % 22 24
Sleeping problems, % 26 29
Daily smoking, % 15 13
Physical training medium high or high effort at least 20 minutes each time, %   
Never 38 28*
1-2 times/week 21 33*
>3 times/week 41 39
Obesity, % 10 15
On sick leave now due to back/neck pain, % 3 5
Mean number of days absent from work the preceding 6 months (SD) 3 (17) 4 (20)
Physical demands at work, % 39 35
Job strain†, % 22 15
Bullying from superiors or workmates, % 13 14
Life events (> = 2) the preceding five years, % 81 75
  1. *Statistical significant difference between groups (p ≤ 0.05).
  2. † Swedish version of the demand-control-support model by Karasek-Theorell.