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Table 6 Total direct costs, effects and the difference in mean costs from a societal perspective.

From: The cost-effectiveness of the RSI QuickScan intervention programme for computer workers: Results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial

  Intervention
Mean (SD)
Usual care
Mean (SD)
Intervention - Usual care
Difference costs and effects
Mean (95% CI)2
information (N = 320) (N = 318)  
Total direct costs 166.82 (436.96) 135.73 (294.55) 31.09 (-26.70; 88.88)
Effects (range 0 - 1) -0.22 (0.51) -0.10 (0.47) -0.11 (-0.19; -0.04)
work posture and movement (N = 315) (N = 317)  
Total direct costs 169.23 (440.00) 136.11 (294.94) 33.12 (-25.32; 91.56)
Effects (range 0 - 11) -0.96 (1.89) -0.61 (2.00) -0.35 (-0.66; -0.05)
arm, neck, shoulder symptoms (N = 312) (N = 308)  
Total direct costs 170.55 (441.91) 128.11 (276.04) 42.44 (-15.48; 100.36)
Effects (range 0 - 44) -1.36 (5.49) -0.77 (5.92) -0.59 (-1.48; 0.31)
sick leave from paid labour (N = 320) (N = 318)  
Total direct costs 166.82 (436.96) 135.73 (294.55) 31.09 (-26.70; 88.88)
Effects (days of sick leave) 0.14 (23.71) -0.30 (23.970) 0.44 (-3.26; 4.14)
Benefits3 (costs of sick leave) 307.71 (3122.17) 227.51 (2847.64) 80.20 (-383.45; 543.86)
  1. Total direct costs and effects per person for the intervention and usual care group and the difference in mean costs (€, 2006 values 1) between both groups from a societal perspective. Mean costs and effects for the scales "information", "work posture and movement" and "arm, neck, shoulder symptoms are presented over a 12 months period. A negative effect value for these risk factors represents a reduction in exposure and the desired effect. Mean costs and effects for days- and costs of sick leave are presented over a 6 months period. A positive effect or benefit value for sick leave represents an increase in days or costs of sick leave and an undesired effect. 1 € = US $1.27; 2 95% confidence interval obtained by bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapping with 5000 replications; 3 Indirect costs for paid labour were calculated according to the friction cost approach on the basis of the mean income of the Dutch population stratified for age and gender [17].