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Table 2 Mean (and standard deviation) of frst, second and minimum value between these vertical GRF peaks, braking and propulsion GRF peaks of control group (CG) and diabetic group (DG), during the stance phase in both condition group: barefoot and shod gait.

From: A comparison of lower limb EMG and ground reaction forces between barefoot and shod gait in participants with diabetic neuropathic and healthy controls

     ANOVA Effect size
GRF (times bodyweight) Condition CG (n = 21) DG (n = 24) Group Condition Group × Condition DG relative to CG (95% CI) Shod relative to Barefoot (95% CI)
First Vertical Peak Shod 1.09 ± 0.09 1.12 ± 0.07 F = 1.29 F = 22.42 F = 0.11 0.030 (- 0.024 to 0.084) 0.040 (0.004 to 0.075)
  Barefoot 1.04 ± 0.09 1.08 ± 0.06 p = 0.262 p < 0.001 p = 0.742 0.040 (-0.011 to 0.091)  
Second Vertical Peak Shod 1.11 ± 0.07 1.05 ± 0.05 F = 6.68 F = 3.15 F = 0.80 - 0.060 (- 0.101 to - 0.019) 0.0200 (-0.011 to 0.051)
  Barefoot 1.09 ± 0.07 1.04 ± 0.07 p = 0.014 p = 0.085 p = 0.378 - 0.050 (- 0.097 to - 0.003)  
Minimum value between peaks Shod 0.77 ± 0.07 0.76 ± 0.07 F = 0.64 F = 8.97 F = 0.002 - 0.010 (- 0.057 to 0.037) -0.030(-0.061 to 0.001
  Barefoot 0.81 ± 0.08 0.81 ± 0.07 p = 0.428 p = 0.005 p = 0.967 0.000 (- 0.051 to 0.051)  
Braking force Shod -0.142 ± 0.04 -0.152 ± 0.05 F = 0.02 F = 14.58 F = 2.81 - 0.010 (- 0.040 to 0.020) -0.020 (-0.032 to -0.008)
  Barefoot -0.131 ± 0.02 -0.125 ± 0.04 p = 0.873 p < 0.001 p = 0.103 0.006 (- 0.015 to 0.027)  
Propulsion force Shod 0.178 ± 0.02* 0.168 ± 0.03 F = 0.64 F = 25.18 F = 0.68 - 0.010 (- 0.027 to 0.007) 0.020 (0.011 to 0.029)
  Barefoot 0.155 ± 0.02* 0.152 ± 0.03 p = 0.428 p < 0.001 p = 0.412 - 0.003 (- 0.020 to 0.014)  
  1. Effect size (mean difference (95% CI)) is also provided for each variable.