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Table 4 Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of MRI-visible nerve involvement to findings of nerve involvement detected in the physical examination and pain drawing in assessing the lumbar spine (n = 61)

From: Assessment of nerve involvement in the lumbar spine: agreement between magnetic resonance imaging, physical examination and pain drawing findings

   MRI Physical examination Pain drawing
   Visible nerve involvement Disturbed sensibility Disturbed reflex function Disturbed motor function Indicating nerve involvement
     to touch to pain             
Segment (nerve) Location Patients Se Sp PPV NPV Se Sp PPV NPV Se Sp PPV NPV Se Sp PPV NPV Se Sp PPV NPV
   no % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %
     Dichotomised findings irrespective of grade in the physical examination and pain drawing  
L 3-4
(L4)
right 7 11 0 87 0 89 0 86 0 80 11 88 29 69 16 90 43 70 0 87 0 87
  left 5 8 0 90 0 80 0 87 0 59 10 93 40 68 5 90 20 68 0 91 0 91
  bilateral 4 7 0 93 0 95 0 93 0 89 6 93 25 72 0 92 0 84 0 93 0 93
  any 8 13 7 85 13 75 0 76 0 47 14 87 38 64 14 88 50 53 0 85 0 85
L 4-5
(L5)
right 11 18 17 82 18 80 20 83 27 76 29 91 73 60 19 83 36 66 19 83 55 48
  left 13 21 19 78 23 73 20 78 38 58 20 78 38 58 27 84 62 54 17 72 46 38
  bilateral 6 10 33 91 17 96 17 91 17 91 9 89 33 62 13 91 33 75 4 87 17 60
  any 18 30 16 61 22 51 24 63 44 40 37 77 61 56 29 69 56 42 31 75 78 28
L 5-S1 (S1) right 4 7 11 94 25 86 9 94 25 82 9 95 50 65 10 94 25 84 15 96 50 81
  left 7 11 15 90 29 80 11 88 29 70 4 82 14 50 14 90 43 67 21 91 43 80
  bilateral 0 0 100 97 100 93 100 66 100 87 100 85
  any 11 18 20 83 36 68 16 81 36 58 10 75 27 48 17 82 36 62 33 88 55 76
T11-S1 mean of any    11 89 18 72 10 88 20 56 20 85 42 67 15 87 36 56 16 92 33 83
  1. Se = sensitivity; Sp = specificity; PPV/NPV = positive/negative predictive value; T = thoracic; L = lumbar; S = sacral; † = no finding in the physical examination/pain drawing