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Table 3 Regression Coefficients for Baseline Variables as Predictors of Dietary Factor Scores in Men and Women from Multivariate Model

From: Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index, and bone mineral density

Independent variables (Baseline) Outcome variables (Year 2)
   Nutrient dense
scorea
Energy dense
scorea
   Men Women Men Women
Age (10 years)   0.20
0.16, 0.23
0.15
0.13, 0.17
-0.15
-0.19, -0.12
-0.13
-0.15, -0.11
Education b < 12 years -0.24
-0.36, -0.13
-0.20
-0.27, -0.14
-0.01
-0.13, 0.12
0.05
-0.01, 0.11
  Post-secondary 0.30
0.19, 0.40
0.26
0.19, 0.33
-0.13
-0.24, -0.02
-0.09
-0.15, -0.02
Smoking c Current -0.27
-0.40, -0.13
-0.36
-0.44, -0.28
0.39
0.24, 0.53
0.25
0.17, 0.33
  Former -0.02
-0.12, 0.08
0.02
-0.04, 0.08
0.13
0.02, 0.23
0.00
-0.06, 0.06
Alcohol d Moderate 0.26
0.15, 0.36
0.21
0.15, 0.26
0.33
0.21, 0.44
0.12
0.06, 0.18
  High 0.14
-0.05, 0.32
0.14
0.02, 0.26
0.50
0.30, 0.69
0.27
0.15, 0.39
Activity e
(2500 kcal/week)
  0.05
0.03, 0.07
0.04
0.02, 0.06
0.03
0.01, 0.05
0.04
0.02, 0.06
Sedentary time f
(hours/day)
  0.00
-0.01, 0.02
-0.01
-0.02, 0.00
0.02
0.00, 0.03
0.02
0.01, 0.03
Milk consumption
(250 mL/day)
  0.03
0.00, 0.06
0.07
0.05, 0.09
0.03
0.00, 0.06
0.00
-0.02, 0.03
Calcium from supplements (500 mg/day)   0.06
-0.02, 0.14
0.03
0.00, 0.07
0.02
-0.06, 0.11
-0.03
-0.06, 0.00
Vitamin D from supplements (200 IU/day)   0.08
0.03, 0.13
0.03
0.00, 0.05
-0.04
-0.10, 0.01
-0.04
-0.06, -0.01
  1. a Outcome variables are unitless but standardized to have mean = 0 and SD = 1. Each individual's diet was characterized by both a nutrient dense score and an energy dense score. A positive regression coefficient for the nutrient dense score indicates category or increase in the independent variable is associated with a greater consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains relative to other foods. A positive regression coefficient for the energy dense scores indicates category or increase in the independent variable is associated with a greater consumption of chips/fries, processed meat, soft drinks, and certain desserts relative to other foods.
  2. Reference or comparison category:
  3. b Reference category = high school diploma.
  4. c Reference category = never-smoker
  5. d Reference category = non-drinker,
  6. e Moderate, strenuous or vigorous activity
  7. f Total time spent sitting or sleeping
  8. Confidence intervals not crossing 0 prior to rounding are indicated in bold type (equivalent to p < 0.05)