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Table 2 Concurrent validity of the goniometer with the ETS for hip ROM measurement in patients with FAI and healthy subjects

From: Validity and test-retest reliability of manual goniometers for measuring passive hip range of motion in femoroacetabular impingement patients.

  ICC2,1 95% CI LOA (°)
Flexion 0.440 -0.049 to 0.800 -18.92 ± 12.57b
Abduction 0.937 0.721 to 0.978 -1.95 ± 4.70b
Adduction 0.533 0.020 to 0.790 -3.32 ± 6.99b
Internal rotation 0.875 0.495 to 0.956 -3.50 ± 7.95b
External rotation 0.542 -0.087 to 0.844 -8.15 ± 8.49b
  1. ETS: electromagnetic tracking system, ROM: range of motion, FAI: femoroacetabular impingement, ICC: intraclass correlation coefficient, CI: confidence interval
  2. LOA: limits of agreement. b ETS lower than goniometer, P < 0.001. Modified LOA for data exhibiting proportional bias (x = mean value): (-0.13x - 5.71) ± 12.57 for hip flexion, (-0.22x - 2.65) ± 7.95 for internal rotation.