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Table 2 Risk ratios of neck pain in males and females.

From: Prevalence of neck pain in subjects with metabolic syndrome - a cross-sectional population-based study

  MALES FEMALES
  Risk Ratio (95% CI) P-Value Risk Ratio (95% CI) P-Value
Metabolic syndrome 2.09 (1.19 - 3.67) 0.01 1.46 (1.02 - 2.10) 0.04
Age 1.00 (0.96 - 1.05) 0.89 1.02 (0.99 - 1.05) 0.25
Physical Activity*     
   Moderate 0.89 (0.47 - 1.66) 0.70 0.97 (0.66 - 1.44) 0.89
   High 0.73 (0.29 - 1.87) 0.53 0.70 (0.38 - 1.29) 0.25
Psychologic distress     
   Moderate (GHQ-12§; 1-2) 1.64 (0.77 - 3.49) 0.20 2.74 (1.69 - 4.45) < 0.001
   High (GHQ-12; 3-12) 3.20 1.67 - 6.13) < 0.001 2.98 (1.91 - 4.64) < 0.001
Smoking 1.02 (0.57 - 1.83) 0.94 1.32 (0.90 - 1.93) 0.16
Alcohol use 0.75 (0.36 - 1.56) 0.44 0.73 (0.50 - 1.07) 0.11
  1. Results of multivariate analysis.
  2. * Leisure time physical activity was defined as physical exercise that lasted at least 30 minutes per session and caused sweating. There were three categories: low activity (1-2 times a month or less), moderate activity (1-3 times a week) and high activity (more than 3 times a week).
  3. § GHQ-12 = 12-item General Health Questionnaire